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  1. Abstract

    High reproductive compatibility between crops and their wild relatives can provide benefits for crop breeding but also poses risks for agricultural weed evolution. Weedy rice is a feral relative of rice that infests paddies and causes severe crop losses worldwide. In regions of tropical Asia where the wild progenitor of rice occurs, weedy rice could be influenced by hybridization with the wild species. Genomic analysis of this phenomenon has been very limited. Here we use whole genome sequence analyses of 217 wild, weedy and cultivated rice samples to show that wild rice hybridization has contributed substantially to the evolution of Southeast Asian weedy rice, with some strains acquiring weed-adaptive traits through introgression from the wild progenitor. Our study highlights how adaptive introgression from wild species can contribute to agricultural weed evolution, and it provides a case study of parallel evolution of weediness in independently-evolved strains of a weedy crop relative.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 15, 2025

    Reverberation mapping is the leading technique used to measure direct black hole masses outside of the local Universe. Additionally, reverberation measurements calibrate secondary mass-scaling relations used to estimate single-epoch virial black hole masses. The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) conducted one of the first multi-object reverberation mapping surveys, monitoring 735 AGN up to z ∼ 4, over 6 years. The limited temporal coverage of the OzDES data has hindered recovery of individual measurements for some classes of sources, particularly those with shorter reverberation lags or lags that fall within campaign season gaps. To alleviate this limitation, we perform a stacking analysis of the cross-correlation functions of sources with similar intrinsic properties to recover average composite reverberation lags. This analysis leads to the recovery of average lags in each redshift-luminosity bin across our sample. We present the average lags recovered for the Hβ, Mg ii, and C iv samples, as well as multiline measurements for redshift bins where two lines are accessible. The stacking analysis is consistent with the Radius–Luminosity relations for each line. Our results for the Hβ sample demonstrate that stacking has the potential to improve upon constraints on the R–L relation, which have been derived only from individual source measurements until now.

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  4. Abstract

    Weedy rice is a close relative of cultivated rice that devastates rice productivity worldwide. In the southern United States, two distinct strains have been historically predominant, but the 21stcentury introduction of hybrid rice and herbicide resistant rice technologies has dramatically altered the weedy rice selective landscape. Here, we use whole-genome sequences of 48 contemporary weedy rice accessions to investigate the genomic consequences of crop-weed hybridization and selection for herbicide resistance. We find that population dynamics have shifted such that most contemporary weeds are now crop-weed hybrid derivatives, and that their genomes have subsequently evolved to be more like their weedy ancestors. Haplotype analysis reveals extensive adaptive introgression of cultivated alleles at the resistance geneALS, but also uncovers evidence for convergent molecular evolution in accessions with no signs of hybrid origin. The results of this study suggest a new era of weedy rice evolution in the United States.

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  5. Spatially synthesizing stiff and elastic domains from a single monomer forms robust synthetic plastics. 
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  6. We discuss insect-inspired artificial intelligence as the key to autonomous robots with extremely limited computing power. 
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  7. Abstract

    Redshift measurements, primarily obtained from host galaxies, are essential for inferring cosmological parameters from type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Matching SNe to host galaxies using images is nontrivial, resulting in a subset of SNe with mismatched hosts and thus incorrect redshifts. We evaluate the host galaxy mismatch rate and resulting biases on cosmological parameters from simulations modeled after the Dark Energy Survey 5 Yr (DES-SN5YR) photometric sample. For both DES-SN5YR data and simulations, we employ the directional light radius method for host galaxy matching. In our SN Ia simulations, we find that 1.7% of SNe are matched to the wrong host galaxy, with redshift differences between the true and matched hosts of up to 0.6. Using our analysis pipeline, we determine the shift in the dark energy equation of state parameter (Δw) due to including SNe with incorrect host galaxy matches. For SN Ia–only simulations, we find Δw= 0.0013 ± 0.0026 with constraints from the cosmic microwave background. Including core-collapse SNe and peculiar SNe Ia in the simulation, we find that Δwranges from 0.0009 to 0.0032, depending on the photometric classifier used. This bias is an order of magnitude smaller than the expected total uncertainty onwfrom the DES-SN5YR sample of ∼0.03. We conclude that the bias onwfrom host galaxy mismatch is much smaller than the uncertainties expected from the DES-SN5YR sample, but we encourage further studies to reduce this bias through better host-matching algorithms or selection cuts.

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  8. Abstract

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the brightest star in the ultrafaint dwarf (UFD) galaxy candidate Cetus II from high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra. For this star, DES J011740.53-173053, abundances or upper limits of 18 elements from carbon to europium are derived. Its chemical abundances generally follow those of other UFD galaxy stars, with a slight enhancement of theα-elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) and low neutron-capture element (Sr, Ba, and Eu) abundances supporting the classification of Cetus II as a likely UFD. The star exhibits lower Sc, Ti, and V abundances than Milky Way (MW) halo stars with similar metallicity. This signature is consistent with yields from a supernova originating from a star with a mass of ∼11.2M. In addition, the star has a potassium abundance of [K/Fe] = 0.81, which is somewhat higher than the K abundances of MW halo stars with similar metallicity, a signature that is also present in a number of UFD galaxies. A comparison including globular clusters and stellar stream stars suggests that high K is a specific characteristic of some UFD galaxy stars and can thus be used to help classify objects as UFD galaxies.

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  9. Abstract We present mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the nucleus of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 taken with the MIRI instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of Directors Discretionary Time Early Release Science program 1328. The high-resolution nuclear spectrum contains 19 emission lines covering a wide range of ionization. The high-ionization lines show broad, blueshifted emission reaching velocities up to 1700 km s −1 and FWHM ranging from ∼500 to 1100 km s −1 . The width of the broad emission and the broad-to-narrow line flux ratios correlate with ionization potential. The results suggest a decelerating, stratified, AGN-driven outflow emerging from the nucleus. The estimated mass outflow rate is 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than the current black hole accretion rate needed to power the AGN. Eight pure rotational H 2 emission lines are detected with intrinsic widths ranging from FWHM ∼125 to 330 km s −1 . We estimate a total mass of warm H 2 gas of ∼1.2 × 10 7 M ⊙ in the central 100 pc. The PAH features are extremely weak in the nuclear spectrum, but a 6.2 μ m PAH feature with an equivalent width of ∼0.07 μ m and a flux of 2.7 × 10 −17 W m −2 is detected. The spectrum is steeply rising in the mid-infrared, with a silicate strength of ∼0.02, significantly smaller than seen in most PG QSOs but comparable to other Seyfert 1s. These early MIRI mid-infrared IFU data highlight the power of JWST to probe the multiphase interstellar media surrounding actively accreting supermassive black holes. 
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