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  1. Abstract Asteroseismology of bright stars has become increasingly important as a method to determine the fundamental properties (in particular ages) of stars. The Kepler Space Telescope initiated a revolution by detecting oscillations in more than 500 main-sequence and subgiant stars. However, most Kepler stars are faint and therefore have limited constraints from independent methods such as long-baseline interferometry. Here we present the discovery of solar-like oscillations in α Men A, a naked-eye ( V = 5.1) G7 dwarf in TESS’s southern continuous viewing zone. Using a combination of astrometry, spectroscopy, and asteroseismology, we precisely characterize the solar analog α Menmore »A ( T eff = 5569 ± 62 K, R ⋆ = 0.960 ± 0.016 R ⊙ , M ⋆ = 0.964 ± 0.045 M ⊙ ). To characterize the fully convective M dwarf companion, we derive empirical relations to estimate mass, radius, and temperature given the absolute Gaia magnitude and metallicity, yielding M ⋆ = 0.169 ± 0.006 M ⊙ , R ⋆ = 0.19 ± 0.01 R ⊙ , and T eff = 3054 ± 44 K. Our asteroseismic age of 6.2 ± 1.4 (stat) ± 0.6 (sys) Gyr for the primary places α Men B within a small population of M dwarfs with precisely measured ages. We combined multiple ground-based spectroscopy surveys to reveal an activity cycle of P = 13.1 ± 1.1 yr for α Men A, a period similar to that observed in the Sun. We used different gyrochronology models with the asteroseismic age to estimate a rotation period of ∼30 days for the primary. Alpha Men A is now the closest ( d = 10 pc) solar analog with a precise asteroseismic age from space-based photometry, making it a prime target for next-generation direct-imaging missions searching for true Earth analogs.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Residential burglary is a social problem in every major urban area. As such, progress has been to develop quantitative, informative and applicable models for this type of crime: (1) the Deterministic-time-step (DTS) model [Short, D’Orsogna, Pasour, Tita, Brantingham, Bertozzi & Chayes (2008) Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 18 , 1249–1267], a pioneering agent-based statistical model of residential burglary criminal behaviour, with deterministic time steps assumed for arrivals of events in which the residential burglary aggregate pattern formation is quantitatively studied for the first time; (2) the SSRB model (agent-based stochastic-statistical model of residential burglary crime) [Wang, Zhang, Bertozzi & Shortmore »(2019) Active Particles , Vol. 2 , Springer Nature Switzerland AG, in press], in which the stochastic component of the model is theoretically analysed by introduction of a Poisson clock with time steps turned into exponentially distributed random variables. To incorporate independence of agents, in this work, five types of Poisson clocks are taken into consideration. Poisson clocks (I), (II) and (III) govern independent agent actions of burglary behaviour, and Poisson clocks (IV) and (V) govern interactions of agents with the environment. All the Poisson clocks are independent. The time increments are independently exponentially distributed, which are more suitable to model individual actions of agents. Applying the method of merging and splitting of Poisson processes, the independent Poisson clocks can be treated as one, making the analysis and simulation similar to the SSRB model. A Martingale formula is derived, which consists of a deterministic and a stochastic component. A scaling property of the Martingale formulation with varying burglar population is found, which provides a theory to the finite size effects . The theory is supported by quantitative numerical simulations using the pattern-formation quantifying statistics. Results presented here will be transformative for both elements of application and analysis of agent-based models for residential burglary or in other domains.« less
  3. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed epidemic modeling at the forefront of worldwide public policy making. Nonetheless, modeling and forecasting the spread of COVID-19 remains a challenge. Here, we detail three regional-scale models for forecasting and assessing the course of the pandemic. This work demonstrates the utility of parsimonious models for early-time data and provides an accessible framework for generating policy-relevant insights into its course. We show how these models can be connected to each other and to time series data for a particular region. Capable of measuring and forecasting the impacts of social distancing, these models highlightmore »the dangers of relaxing nonpharmaceutical public health interventions in the absence of a vaccine or antiviral therapies.« less
  4. Poisson’s ratio (ν) defines a material’s propensity to laterally expand upon compression, or laterally shrink upon tension for non-auxetic materials. This fundamental metric has traditionally, in some fields, been assumed to be a material-independent constant, but it is clear that it varies with composition across glasses, ceramics, metals, and polymers. The intrinsically elastic metric has also been suggested to control a range of properties, even beyond the linear-elastic regime. Notably, metallic glasses show a striking brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition for ν-values above ~0.32. The BTD transition has also been suggested to be valid for oxide glasses, but, unfortunately, direct prediction ofmore »Poisson’s ratio from chemical composition remains challenging. With the long-term goal to discover such high-ν oxide glasses, we here revisit whether previously proposed relationships between Poisson’s ratio and liquid fragility (m) and atomic packing density (Cg) hold for oxide glasses, since this would enable m and Cg to be used as surrogates for ν. To do so, we have performed an extensive literature review and synthesized new oxide glasses within the zinc borate and aluminoborate families that are found to exhibit high Poisson’s ratio values up to ~0.34. We are not able to unequivocally confirm the universality of the Novikov-Sokolov correlation between ν and m and that between ν and Cg for oxide glass-formers, nor for the organic, ionic, chalcogenide, halogenide, or metallic glasses. Despite significant scatter, we do, however, observe an overall increase in ν with increasing m and Cg, but it is clear that additional structural details besides m or Cg are needed to predict and understand the composition dependence of Poisson’s ratio. Finally, we also infer from literature data that, in addition to high ν, high Young’s modulus is also needed to obtain glasses with high fracture toughness.« less