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Creators/Authors contains: "Martin, Carlos"

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  1. Abstract

    Tumor cell dissemination in cancer patients is associated with a significant reduction in their survival and quality of life. The ubiquitination pathway plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis both in normal and stressed conditions and its dysregulation has been associated with malignant transformation and invasive potential of tumor cells, thus highlighting its value as a potential therapeutic target. In order to identify novel molecular targets of tumor cell migration and invasion we performed a genetic screen with an shRNA library against ubiquitination pathway-related genes. To this end, we set up a protocol to specifically enrichmore »positive migration regulator candidates. We identified the deubiquitinase USP19 and demonstrated that its silencing reduces the migratory and invasive potential of highly invasive breast cancer cell lines. We extended our investigation in vivo and confirmed that mice injected with USP19 depleted cells display increased tumor-free survival, as well as a delay in the onset of the tumor formation and a significant reduction in the appearance of metastatic foci, indicating that tumor cell invasion and dissemination is impaired. In contrast, overexpression of USP19 increased cell invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo, further validating our findings. More importantly, we demonstrated that USP19 catalytic activity is important for the control of tumor cell migration and invasion, and that its molecular mechanism of action involves LRP6, a Wnt co-receptor. Finally, we showed that USP19 overexpression is a surrogate prognostic marker of distant relapse in patients with early breast cancer. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that USP19 might represent a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2021
  3. Water-stable isotopes in polar ice cores are a widely used temperature proxy in paleoclimate reconstruction, yet calibration remains challenging in East Antarctica. Here, we reconstruct the magnitude and spatial pattern of Last Glacial Maximum surface cooling in Antarctica using borehole thermometry and firn properties in seven ice cores. West Antarctic sites cooled ~10°C relative to the preindustrial period. East Antarctic sites show a range from ~4° to ~7°C cooling, which is consistent with the results of global climate models when the effects of topographic changes indicated with ice core air-content data are included, but less than those indicated with themore »use of water-stable isotopes calibrated against modern spatial gradients. An altered Antarctic temperature inversion during the glacial reconciles our estimates with water-isotope observations.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 4, 2022