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Creators/Authors contains: "Martin, Crystal L."

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  1. Abstract

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) plays a vital role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, acting as a lifeline between galaxies and the surrounding intergalactic medium. In this study, we leverage a unique sample of quasar pairs to investigate the properties of the CGM with absorption line tomography. We present a new sample of medium-resolution Keck/ESI, Magellan/MagE, and VLT/XSHOOTER spectra of 29 quasar pairs at redshift 2 <z< 3. We supplement the sample with additional spectra of 32 pairs from the literature, creating a catalog of 61 quasar pairs with angular separations between 1.″7 and 132.″9 and projected physical separations (r) between 14 kpc and 887 kpc. We construct a catalog of 906 metal-line absorption doublets of Civ(λλ1548, 1550) with equivalent widths ranging from 6 m Å ≤Wr,1550≤ 2053 m Å. The best-fit linear model to the log-space equivalent width frequency distribution (logf(Wr)=mlog(Wr)+b) of the sample yields coefficients ofm= −1.44 ± 0.16 andb= −0.43 ± 0.16. To constrain the projected extent of Civ, we calculate the transverse autocorrelation function. The flattening of the autocorrelation function at lowrprovides a lower limit for the coherence length of the metal enriched CGM—on the order ofmore »200h−1comoving kpc. This physical size constraint allows us to refine our understanding of the metals in the CGM, where the extent of Civin the CGM depends on gas flows, feedback, timescale of metal injection and mixing, and the mass of the host galaxies.

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  2. Abstract The high incidence rate of the O vi λλ 1032, 1038 absorption around low-redshift, ∼ L * star-forming galaxies has generated interest in studies of the circumgalactic medium. We use the high-resolution EAGLE cosmological simulation to analyze the circumgalactic O vi gas around z ≈ 0.3 star-forming galaxies. Motivated by the limitation that observations do not reveal where the gas lies along the line of sight, we compare the O vi measurements produced by gas within fixed distances around galaxies and by gas selected using line-of-sight velocity cuts commonly adopted by observers. We show that gas selected by a velocity cut of ±300 km s −1 or ±500 km s −1 produces a higher O vi column density, a flatter column density profile, and a higher covering fraction compared to gas within 1, 2, or 3 times the virial radius ( r vir ) of galaxies. The discrepancy increases with impact parameter and worsens for lower-mass galaxies. For example, compared to the gas within 2 r vir , identifying the gas using velocity cuts of 200–500 km s −1 increases the O vi column density by 0.2 dex (0.1 dex) at 1 r vir to over 0.75 dex (0.7more »dex) at ≈ 2 r vir for galaxies with stellar masses of 10 9 –10 9.5 M ⊙ (10 10 –10 10.5 M ⊙ ). We furthermore estimate that excluding O vi outside r vir decreases the circumgalactic oxygen mass measured by Tumlinson et al. (2011) by over 50%. Our results demonstrate that gas at large line-of-sight separations but selected by conventional velocity windows has significant effects on the O vi measurements and may not be observationally distinguishable from gas near the galaxies.« less
  3. Abstract We present spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy of 15 galaxies at z ∼ 0.8 drawn from the DEEP2 survey. We analyze H α +[N ii ], [S ii ], and [S iii ] emission on kiloparsec scales to explore which mechanisms are powering emission lines at high redshifts, testing which processes may be responsible for the well-known offset of high-redshift galaxies from the z ∼ 0 locus in the [O iii ]/H β versus [N ii ]/H α Baldwin—Phillips—Terlevich (BPT) excitation diagram. We study spatially resolved emission-line maps to examine evidence for active galactic nuclei (AGN), shocks, diffuse ionized gas (DIG), or escaping ionizing radiation, all of which may contribute to the BPT offsets observed in our sample. We do not find significant evidence of AGN in our sample and quantify that, on average, AGN would need to contribute ∼25% of the H α flux in the central resolution element in order to cause the observed BPT offsets. We find weak (2 σ ) evidence of DIG emission at low surface brightnesses, yielding an implied total DIG emission fraction of ∼20%, which is not significant enough to be the dominant emission line driver in our sample. Inmore »general we find that the observed emission is dominated by star-forming H ii regions. We discuss trends with demographic properties and the possible role of α -enhanced abundance patterns in the emission spectra of high-redshift galaxies. Our results indicate that photoionization modeling with stellar population synthesis inputs is a valid tool to explore the specific star formation properties which may cause BPT offsets, to be explored in future work.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We present deep far-infrared observations of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891 obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The maps confirm the detection of thermal emission from the inner circumgalactic medium (halo) and spatially resolve a dusty superbubble and a dust spur (filament). The dust temperature of the halo component is lower than that of the disc but increases across a region of diameter ≈8.0 kpc extending at least 7.7 kpc vertically from one side of the disc, a region we call a superbubble because of its association with thermal X-ray emission and a minimum in the synchrotron scale height. This outflow is breaking through the thick disc and developing into a galactic wind, which is of particular interest because NGC 891 is not considered a starburst galaxy; the star formation rate surface density, 0.03 M⊙ yr−1 kpc−2, and gas fraction, just $10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ in the inner disc, indicate the threshold for wind formation is lower than previous work has suggested. We conclude that the star formation surface density is sufficient for superbubble blowout into the halo, but the cosmic ray electrons may play a critical role in determining whether this outflow develops into a fountain or escapesmore »from the gravitational potential. The high dust-to-gas ratio in the dust spur suggests the material was pulled out of NGC 891 through the collision of a minihalo with the disc of NGC 891. We conclude that NGC 891 offers an example of both feedback and satellite interactions transporting dust into the halo of a typical galaxy.« less
  5. Abstract

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV; ∼1200–2000 Å) spectra are fundamental to our understanding of star-forming galaxies, providing a unique window on massive stellar populations, chemical evolution, feedback processes, and reionization. The launch of the James Webb Space Telescope will soon usher in a new era, pushing the UV spectroscopic frontier to higher redshifts than ever before; however, its success hinges on a comprehensive understanding of the massive star populations and gas conditions that power the observed UV spectral features. This requires a level of detail that is only possible with a combination of ample wavelength coverage, signal-to-noise, spectral-resolution, and sample diversity that has not yet been achieved by any FUV spectral database. We present the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Legacy Spectroscopic Survey (CLASSY) treasury and its first high-level science product, the CLASSY atlas. CLASSY builds on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive to construct the first high-quality (S/N1500 Å≳ 5/resel), high-resolution (R∼ 15,000) FUV spectral database of 45 nearby (0.002 <z< 0.182) star-forming galaxies. The CLASSY atlas, available to the public via the CLASSY website, is the result of optimally extracting and coadding 170 archival+new spectra from 312 orbits of HST observations. The CLASSY sample covers a broad range of properties including stellarmore »mass (6.2 < logM(M) < 10.1), star formation rate (−2.0 < log SFR (Myr−1) < +1.6), direct gas-phase metallicity (7.0 < 12+log(O/H) < 8.8), ionization (0.5 < O32< 38.0), reddening (0.02 <E(BV) < 0.67), and nebular density (10 <ne(cm−3) < 1120). CLASSY is biased to UV-bright star-forming galaxies, resulting in a sample that is consistent with thez∼ 0 mass–metallicity relationship, but is offset to higher star formation rates by roughly 2 dex, similar toz≳ 2 galaxies. This unique set of properties makes the CLASSY atlas the benchmark training set for star-forming galaxies across cosmic time.

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