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  1. We demonstrate rapid imaging based on four-wave mixing (FWM) by assessing the quality of advanced materials through measurement of their nonlinear response, exciton dephasing, and exciton lifetimes. We use a WSe2monolayer grown by chemical vapor deposition as a canonical example to demonstrate these capabilities. By comparison, we show that extracting material parameters such as FWM intensity, dephasing times, excited state lifetimes, and distribution of dark/localized states allows for a more accurate assessment of the quality of a sample than current prevalent techniques, including white light microscopy and linear micro-reflectance spectroscopy. We further discuss future improvements of the ultrafast FWM techniques by modeling the robustness of exponential decay fits to different spacing of the sampling points. Employing ultrafast nonlinear imaging in real-time at room temperature bears the potential for rapid in-situ sample characterization of advanced materials and beyond.

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  2. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are regarded as a possible material platform for quantum information science and related device applications. In TMD monolayers, the dephasing time and inhomogeneity are crucial parameters for any quantum information application. In TMD heterostructures, coupling strength and interlayer exciton lifetimes are also parameters of interest. However, many demonstrations in TMDs can only be realized at specific spots on the sample, presenting a challenge to the scalability of these applications. Here, using multi-dimensional coherent imaging spectroscopy, we shed light on the underlying physics—including dephasing, inhomogeneity, and strain—for a MoSe 2 monolayer and identify both promising and unfavorable areas for quantum information applications. We, furthermore, apply the same technique to a MoSe 2 /WSe 2 heterostructure. Despite the notable presence of strain and dielectric environment changes, coherent and incoherent coupling and interlayer exciton lifetimes are mostly robust across the sample. This uniformity is despite a significantly inhomogeneous interlayer exciton photoluminescence distribution that suggests a bad sample for device applications. This robustness strengthens the case for TMDs as a next-generation material platform in quantum information science and beyond. 
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  3. We show that accelerated nonlinear imaging, such as stimulated Raman scattering and pump–probe imaging, is enabled by an order of magnitude reduction of data acquisition time when replacing the exponentially-weighted-moving-average low-pass filter in a lock-in amplifier with a simple-moving-average filter. We show that this simple-moving-average (box) lock-in yields a superior signal-to-noise ratio and suppression of extraneous modulations with short pixel dwell times, if one condition for the relation between the lock-in time constant and modulation frequencies is met. Our results, both theoretical and experimental, indicate that for nonlinear imaging applications, the box lock-in significantly outperforms conventional lock-in detection. These results facilitate the application of ultrafast and nonlinear imaging as a new standard for material characterization.

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  4. Abstract

    Cell adhesion mediated by selectins (expressed by activated endothelium, activated platelets, and leukocytes) binding to their resepective selectin ligands (expressed by cancer cells) may be involved in metastasis. Therefore, methods of characterizing selectin ligands expressed on human tissue may serve as valuable assays. Presented herein is an innovative method for detecting functional selectin ligands expressed on human tissue that uses a dynamic approach, which allows for control over the force applied to the bonds between the probe and target molecules. This new method of tissue interrogation, known as dynamic biochemical tissue analysis (DBTA), involves the perfusion of molecular probe-coated microspheres over tissues. DBTA using selectin-coated probes is able to detect functional selectin ligands expressed on tissue from multiple cancer types at both primary and metastatic sites.

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