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  1. Single crystals of BaTiO3 exhibit small switching fields and energies, but thin-film performance is considerably worse, thus precluding their use in next-generation devices. Here, we demonstrate high-quality BaTiO3 thin films with nearly bulk-like properties. Thickness scaling provides access to the coercive voltages (<100 mV) and fields (<10 kV cm−1) required for future applications and results in a switching energy of <2 J cm−3 (corresponding to <2 aJ per bit in a 10 × 10 × 10 nm3 device). While reduction in film thickness reduces coercive voltage, it does so at the expense of remanent polarization. Depolarization fields impact polar state stability in thicker films but fortunately suppress the coercive field, thusmore »driving a deviation from Janovec–Kay–Dunn scaling and enabling a constant coercive field for films <150 nm in thickness. Switching studies reveal fast speeds (switching times of ~2 ns for 25-nm-thick films with 5-µm-diameter capacitors) and a pathway to subnanosecond switching. Finally, integration of BaTiO3 thin films onto silicon substrates is shown. We also discuss what remains to be demonstrated to enable the use of these materials for next-generation devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 26, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 5, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 5, 2022
  4. Abstract Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC) neural cultures offer clinically relevant models of human diseases, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. In situ characterization of the spatial-temporal evolution of cell state in 3D culture and subsequent 2D dissociated culture models based on protein expression levels and localizations is essential to understanding neural cell differentiation, disease state phenotypes, and sample-to-sample variability. Here, we apply PR obe-based I maging for S equential M ultiplexing (PRISM) to facilitate multiplexed imaging with facile, rapid exchange of imaging probes to analyze iPSC-derived cortical and motor neuron cultures that are relevant tomore »psychiatric and neurodegenerative disease models, using over ten protein targets. Our approach permits analysis of cell differentiation, cell composition, and functional marker expression in complex stem-cell derived neural cultures. Furthermore, our approach is amenable to automation, offering in principle the ability to scale-up to dozens of protein targets and samples.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  7. Calculated conductance through Au n –S–Bridge–S–Au n (Bridge = organic σ/π-system) constructs are compared to experimentally-determined magnetic exchange coupling parameters in a series of Tp Cum,Me ZnSQ–Bridge–NN complexes, where Tp Cum,Me = hydro-tris(3-cumenyl-1-methylpyrazolyl)borate ancillary ligand, Zn = diamagnetic zinc( ii ), SQ = semiquinone ( S = 1/2), and NN = nitronylnitroxide radical ( S = 1/2). We find that there is a nonlinear functional relationship between the biradical magnetic exchange coupling, J D→A , and the computed conductance, g mb . Although different bridge types (monomer vs. dimer) do not lie on the same J D→A vs. g mbmore », curve, there is a scale invariance between the monomeric and dimeric bridges which shows that the two data sets are related by a proportionate scaling of J D→A . For exchange and conductance mediated by a given bridge fragment, we find that the ratio of distance dependent decay constants for conductance ( β g ) and magnetic exchange coupling ( β J ) does not equal unity, indicating that inherent differences in the tunneling energy gaps, Δ ε , and the bridge–bridge electronic coupling, H BB , are not directly transferrable properties as they relate to exchange and conductance. The results of these observations are described in valence bond terms, with resonance structure contributions to the ground state bridge wavefunction being different for SQ–Bridge–NN and Au n –S–Bridge–S–Au n systems.« less