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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 22, 2025
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  3. Estuarine and coastal waterways are commonly monitored for fecal and sewage contamination to protect recreator health and ecosystem functions. Such monitoring programs commonly rely on cultivation-based counts of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in water column samples. Recent studies demonstrate that sediments and beach sands can be heavily colonized by FIB, and that settling and resuspension of colonized particles may significantly influence the distribution of FIB in the water column. However, measurements of sediment FIB are rarely incorporated into monitoring programs, and geographic surveys of sediment FIB are uncommon. In this study, the distribution of FIB and the extent of benthic-pelagic FIB coupling were examined in the urbanized, lower Hudson River Estuary. Using cultivation-based enumeration, two commonly-measured FIB, enterococci and Escherichia coli, were widely distributed in both sediment and water, and were positively correlated with each other. The taxonomic identity of FIB isolates from water and sediment was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The geometric mean of FIB concentration in sediment was correlated with both the geometric mean of FIB in water samples from the same locations and with sediment organic carbon. These two positive associations likely reflect water as the FIB source for underlying sediments, and longer FIB persistence in the sediments compared to the water, respectively. The relative representation of other fecal associated bacterial genera in sediment, determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, increased with the sequence representation of the two FIB, supporting the value of these FIB for assessing sediment contamination. Experimental resuspension of sediment increased shoreline water column FIB concentrations, which may explain why shoreline water samples had higher average FIB concentrations than samples collected nearby but further from shore. In combination, these results demonstrate extensive benthic-pelagic coupling of FIB in an urbanized estuary and highlight the importance of sediment FIB distribution and ecology when interpreting water quality monitoring data. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Cellulose-based paper is a versatile material with a diverse array of applications. While paper is not commonly thought of as a material that shrinks, here we present a method for miniaturizing paper via periodate oxidation. Chromatography paper was exposed to varying concentrations of periodate (0.1–0.5 M) over a 96-h period. Following optimization of miniaturization parameters, fourteen different types of paper were miniaturized and reductions in surface area ranging from 60 to 80% were observed. All cellulose paper types, but not cellulose-derivatives, displayed successful miniaturization. Results were highly tunable dependent upon periodate concentration and reaction time. Potential applications of the technique are discussed, including its use as a microfabrication method. 
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  6. Abstract The Pandora Software Development Kit and algorithm libraries provide pattern-recognition logic essential to the reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chamber detectors. Pandora is the primary event reconstruction software used at ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector. ProtoDUNE-SP, located at CERN, is exposed to a charged-particle test beam. This paper gives an overview of the Pandora reconstruction algorithms and how they have been tailored for use at ProtoDUNE-SP. In complex events with numerous cosmic-ray and beam background particles, the simulated reconstruction and identification efficiency for triggered test-beam particles is above 80% for the majority of particle type and beam momentum combinations. Specifically, simulated 1 GeV/ c charged pions and protons are correctly reconstructed and identified with efficiencies of 86.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 % and 84.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 %, respectively. The efficiencies measured for test-beam data are shown to be within 5% of those predicted by the simulation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024