Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.
Type IV Pili of Streptococcus sanguinis Contribute to Pathogenesis in Experimental Infective EndocarditisLaRock, Christopher N. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Streptococcus sanguinis is a common cause of infective endocarditis (IE). Efforts by research groups are aimed at identifying and characterizing virulence factors that contribute to the ability of this organism to cause IE. This Gram-positive pathogen causes heart infection by gaining access to the bloodstream, adhering to host extracellular matrix protein and/or platelets, colonizing the aortic endothelium, and incorporating itself into the aortic vegetation. While many virulence factors have been reported to contribute to the ability of S. sanguinis to cause IE, it is noteworthy that type IV pili (T4P) have not been described to be a virulence factor in this organism, although S. sanguinis strains typically encode these pili. Type IV pili are molecular machines that are capable of mediating diverse virulence functions and surface motility. T4P have been shown to mediate twitching motility in some strains of S. sanguinis , although in most strains it has been difficult to detect twitching motility. While we found that T4P are dispensable for direct in vitro platelet binding and aggregation phenotypes, we show that they are critical to the development of platelet-dependent biofilms representative of the cardiac vegetation. We also observed that T4P are required for in vitro invasion ofmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 22, 2022
Conjugate vaccines are among the most effective methods for preventing bacterial infections. However, existing manufacturing approaches limit access to conjugate vaccines due to centralized production and cold chain distribution requirements. To address these limitations, we developed a modular technology for in vitro conjugate vaccine expression (iVAX) in portable, freeze-dried lysates from detoxified, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. Upon rehydration, iVAX reactions synthesize clinically relevant doses of conjugate vaccines against diverse bacterial pathogens in 1 hour. We show that iVAX-synthesized vaccines against Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) strain Schu S4 protected mice from lethal intranasal F. tularensis challenge. The iVAX platform promises to accelerate development of new conjugate vaccines with increased access through refrigeration-independent distribution and portable production.