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  1. Abstract

    Insulin-producing β cells created from human pluripotent stem cells have potential as a therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes, but human pluripotent stem cell-derived islets (SC-islets) still differ from their in vivo counterparts. To better understand the state of cell types within SC-islets and identify lineage specification deficiencies, we used single-nucleus multi-omic sequencing to analyse chromatin accessibility and transcriptional profiles of SC-islets and primary human islets. Here we provide an analysis that enabled the derivation of gene lists and activity for identifying each SC-islet cell type compared with primary islets. Within SC-islets, we found that the difference between β cells and awry enterochromaffin-like cells is a gradient of cell states rather than a stark difference in identity. Furthermore, transplantation of SC-islets in vivo improved cellular identities overtime, while long-term in vitro culture did not. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of chromatin and transcriptional landscapes during islet cell specification and maturation.

  2. Wendy Rubin (Ed.)
    This study is an exploratory comparison of 69 Hispanic students enrolled in first-semester general chemistry (Chem I) who attended either a Hispanic-Serving or emerging Hispanic-Serving Institution and were not successful in Chem I. Students’ automaticity skills (what can be done without the aid of a calculator) in arithmetic and quantitative reasoning were analyzed based on students’ personal characteristics such as gender, prior knowledge in chemistry and mathematics, entry college (i.e., STEM or not), and parents’ academic background. Findings indicate that without basic automaticity skills, students enter Chem I at a deficit, but these at-risk students can be identified early in the semester to help them succeed. Results also indicate that arithmetic automaticity is more influential than quantitative reasoning in predicting academic success. A suggested high-impact practice is presented as a possible correction for these deficits.
  3. Isocyanoazulenes (CNAz) constitute a relatively new class of isocyanoarenes that offers rich structural and electronic diversification of the organic isocyanide ligand platform. This article considers a series of 2-isocyano-1,3-X2-azulene ligands (X = H, Me, CO2Et, Br, and CN) and the corresponding zero-valent complexes thereof, [(OC)5Cr(2-isocyano-1,3-X2-azulene)]. Air- and thermally stable, X-ray structurally characterized 2-isocyano-1,3-dimethylazulene may be viewed as a non-benzenoid aromatic congener of 2,6-dimethyphenyl isocyanide (2,6-xylyl isocyanide), a longtime “workhorse” aryl isocyanide ligand in coordination chemistry. Single crystal X-ray crystallographic {Cr–CNAz bond distances}, cyclic voltametric {E1/2(Cr0/1+)}, 13C NMR {δ(13CN), δ(13CO)}, UV-vis {dπ(Cr) → pπ*(CNAz) Metal-to-Ligand Charge Transfer}, and FTIR {νN≡C, νC≡O, kC≡O} analyses of the [(OC)5Cr(2-isocyano-1,3-X2-azulene)] complexes provided a multifaceted, quantitative assessment of the π-acceptor/σ-donor characteristics of the above five 2-isocyanoazulenes. In particular, the following inverse linear relationships were documented: δ(13COtrans) vs. δ(13CN), δ(13COcis) vs. δ(13CN), and δ(13COtrans) vs. kC≡O,trans force constant. Remarkably, the net electron withdrawing capability of the 2-isocyano-1,3-dicyanoazulene ligand rivals those of perfluorinated isocyanides CNC6F5 and CNC2F3.
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. A bstract The first measurement of the top quark pair ( $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ ) production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 . 6 TeV is presented. Data recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in Summer 2022, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 . 21 fb − 1 , are analyzed. Events are selected with one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons) and additional jets. A maximum likelihood fit is performed in event categories defined by the number and flavors of the leptons, the number of jets, and the number of jets identified as originating from b quarks. An inclusive $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ production cross section of 881 ± 23 (stat + syst) ± 20 (lumi) pb is measured, in agreement with the standard model prediction of $$ {924}_{-40}^{+32} $$ 924 − 40 + 32 pb.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024