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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025

    We have performed targeted searches of known extragalactic transient events at millimetre wavelengths using nine seasons (2013–2021) of 98, 150, and 229 GHz Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) observations that mapped ∼40 per cent of the sky for most of the data volume. Our data cover 88 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), 12 tidal disruption events (TDEs), and 203 other transients, including supernovae (SNe). We stack our ACT observations to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the maps. In all cases but one, we do not detect these transients in the ACT data. The single candidate detection (event AT2019ppm), seen at ∼5σ significance in our data, appears to be due to active galactic nuclei activity in the host galaxy coincident with a transient alert. For each source in our search we provide flux upper limits. For example, the medians for the 95 per cent confidence upper limits at 98 GHz are 15, 18, and 16 mJy for GRBs, SNe, and TDEs, respectively, in the first month after discovery. The projected sensitivity of future wide-area cosmic microwave background surveys should be sufficient to detect many of these events using the methods described in this paper.

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  3. Abstract

    We present tomographic measurements of structure growth using cross-correlations of Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) DR6 and Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing maps with the unWISE Blue and Green galaxy samples, which span the redshift ranges 0.2 ≲z≲ 1.1 and 0.3 ≲z≲ 1.8, respectively. We improve on prior unWISE cross-correlations not just by making use of the new, high-precision ACT DR6 lensing maps, but also by including additional spectroscopic data for redshift calibration and by analyzing our measurements with a more flexible theoretical model. We determine the amplitude of matter fluctuations at low redshifts (z≃ 0.2–1.6), findingS8σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.5=0.813±0.021using the ACT cross-correlation alone andS8= 0.810 ± 0.015 with a combination of Planck and ACT cross-correlations; these measurements are fully consistent with the predictions from primary CMB measurements assuming standard structure growth. The addition of baryon acoustic oscillation data breaks the degeneracy betweenσ8and Ωm, allowing us to measureσ8= 0.813 ± 0.020 from the cross-correlation of unWISE with ACT andσ8= 0.813 ± 0.015 from the combination of cross-correlations with ACT and Planck. These results also agree with the expectations from primary CMB extrapolations in ΛCDM cosmology; the consistency ofσ8derived from our two redshift samples atz∼ 0.6 and 1.1 provides a further check of our cosmological model. Our results suggest that structure formation on linear scales is well described by ΛCDM even down to low redshiftsz≲ 1.

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  4. We demonstrate using micromagnetic simulations that a nanomagnet array excited by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can work as a reservoir. An input nanomagnet is excited with focused SAW and coupled to several nanomagnets, seven of which serve as output nanomagnets. To evaluate memory effect and computing capability, we study the short-term memory (STM) and parity check (PC) capacities, respectively. The SAW (4 GHz carrier frequency) amplitude is modulated to provide a sequence of sine and square waves of 100 MHz frequency. The responses of the selected output nanomagnets are processed by reading the envelope of their magnetization states, which is used to train the output weights using the regression method. For classification, a random sequence of 100 square and sine wave samples is used, of which 80% are used for training, and the rest are used for testing. We achieve 100% training and 100% testing accuracy. The average STM and PC are calculated to be ∼4.69 and ∼5.39 bits, respectively, which is indicative of the proposed acoustically driven nanomagnet oscillator array being well suited for physical reservoir computing applications. The energy dissipation is ∼2.5 times lower than a CMOS-based echo-state network. Furthermore, the reservoir is able to accurately predict Mackey-Glass time series up to several time steps ahead. Finally, the ability to use high frequency SAW makes the nanomagnet reservoir scalable to small dimensions, and the ability to modulate the envelope at a lower frequency (100 MHz) adds flexibility to encode different signals beyond the sine/square waves classification and Mackey-Glass predication tasks demonstrated here. 
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  5. Abstract Diverse astrophysical observations suggest the existence of cold dark matter that interacts only gravitationally with radiation and ordinary baryonic matter. Any nonzero coupling between dark matter and baryons would provide a significant step towards understanding the particle nature of dark matter. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide constraints on such a coupling that complement laboratory searches. In this work we place upper limits on a variety of models for dark matter elastic scattering with protons and electrons by combining large-scale CMB data from the Planck satellite with small-scale information from Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) DR4 data. In the case of velocity-independent scattering, we obtain bounds on the interaction cross section for protons that are 40% tighter than previous constraints from the CMB anisotropy. For some models with velocity-dependent scattering we find best-fitting cross sections with a 2 σ deviation from zero, but these scattering models are not statistically preferred over ΛCDM in terms of model selection. 
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  6. Abstract Directional transport of auxin is critical for inflorescence and floral development in flowering plants, but the role of auxin influx carriers (AUX1 proteins) has been largely overlooked. Taking advantage of available AUX1 mutants in green millet (Setaria viridis) and maize (Zea mays), we uncover previously unreported aspects of plant development that are affected by auxin influx, including higher order branches in the inflorescence, stigma branch number, glume (floral bract) development, and plant fertility. However, disruption of auxin flux does not affect all parts of the plant, with little obvious effect on inflorescence meristem size, time to flowering, and anther morphology. In double mutant studies in maize, disruptions of ZmAUX1 also affect vegetative development. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged construct of the Setaria AUX1 protein Sparse Panicle1 (SPP1) under its native promoter showed that SPP1 localizes to the plasma membrane of outer tissue layers in both roots and inflorescences, and accumulates specifically in inflorescence branch meristems, consistent with the mutant phenotype and expected auxin maxima. RNA-seq analysis indicated that most gene expression modules are conserved between mutant and wild-type plants, with only a few hundred genes differentially expressed in spp1 inflorescences. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–Cas9 technology, we disrupted SPP1 and the other four AUX1 homologs in S. viridis. SPP1 has a larger effect on inflorescence development than the others, although all contribute to plant height, tiller formation, and leaf and root development. The AUX1 importers are thus not fully redundant in S. viridis. Our detailed phenotypic characterization plus a stable GFP-tagged line offer tools for future dissection of the function of auxin influx proteins. 
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