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Creators/Authors contains: "Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Since its inception, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has seen continuous evolution in terms of the design of the catalyst and reaction conditions; today, it is one of the most useful techniques to prepare well-defined polymers as well as one of the most notable examples of catalysis in polymer chemistry. This Perspective highlights fundamental advances in the design of ATRP reactions and catalysts, focusing on the crucial role that mechanistic studies play in understanding, rationalizing, and predicting polymerization outcomes. A critical summary of traditional ATRP systems is provided first; we then focus on the most recent developments to improve catalyst selectivity, control polymerizations via external stimuli, and employ new photochemical or dual catalytic systems with an outlook to future research directions and open challenges. 
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  3. Photoinduced electron/energy transfer (PET)-reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) and conventional photoinitiated RAFT were used to synthesize polymer networks. In this study, two different metal catalysts, namely, tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) and zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), were selected to generate two different catalytic pathways, one with Ir(ppy)3 proceeding through an energy-transfer pathway and one with ZnTPP proceeding through an electron-transfer pathway. These PET-RAFT systems were contrasted against a conventional photoinitated RAFT process. Mechanically robust materials were generated. Using bulk swelling ratios and degradable cross-linkers, the homogeneity of the networks was evaluated. Especially at high primary chain length and cross-link density, the PET-RAFT systems generated more uniform networks than those made by conventional RAFT, with the electron transfer-based ZnTPP giving superior results to those of Ir(ppy)3. The ability to deactivate radicals either by RAFT exchange or reversible coupling in PET RAFT was proposed as the mechanism that gave better control in PET-RAFT systems. 
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