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  1. Abstract

    Calcium dicarbide, CaC2, has been characterized at high resolution in the laboratory, and its main isotopologue,40CaC2, has been assigned to 14 rotational emission lines between 14 and 115 GHz, including 12 previously unassigned lines, in the expanding molecular envelope of the evolved carbon star IRC+10216. Aided by high-level quantum calculations and measurements of multiple isotopologues, CaC2is determined to be a T-shaped molecule with a highly ionic bond linking the metal atom to the C2unit, very similar in structure to isovalent magnesium dicarbide (MgC2). The excitation of CaC2is characterized by a very low rotational temperature of 5.8 ± 0.6 K and a kinetic temperature of 36 ± 16 K, similar to values derived for MgC2. On the assumption that the emission originates from a 30″ shell in IRC+10216, the column density of CaC2is (5.6 ± 1.7) × 1011cm−2. CaC2is only the second Ca-bearing molecule besides CaNC and only the second metal dicarbide besides MgC2identified in space. Owing to the similarity between the predicted ion–molecule chemistry of Ca and Mg, a comparison of the CaC2abundance with that of MgC2and related species permits empirical inferences about the radiative association–dissociative recombination processes postulated to yield metal-bearing molecules in IRC+10216 and similar objects.

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  2. Abstract

    We report the detection of magnesium dicarbide, MgC2, in the laboratory at centimeter wavelengths and assign24MgC2,25MgC2, and26MgC2to 14 unidentified lines in the radio spectrum of the circumstellar envelope of the evolved carbon star IRC+10216. The structure of MgC2is found to be T-shaped with a highly ionic bond between the metal atom and the C2unit, analogous to other dicarbides containing electropositive elements. A two-temperature excitation model of the MgC2emission lines observed in IRC+10216 yields a very low rotational temperature of 6 ± 1 K, a kinetic temperature of 22 ± 13 K, and a column density of (1.0 ± 0.3) × 1012cm−2. The abundance of MgC2relative to the magnesium–carbon chains MgCCH, MgC4H, and MgC6H is 1:2:22:20 and provides a new constraint on the sequential radiative association–dissociative recombination mechanisms implicated in the production of metal-bearing molecules in circumstellar environments.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    We report on the Sr isotopic composition of pore fluids recovered from Sites U1480 and U1481 drilled during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 362, which sampled the incoming sedimentary section of North Sumatra to investigate the causes of shallow seismogenesis in the Sumatra-Andaman margin. Sr isotope data are valuable in identifying diagenetic alteration of the incoming sequence, which can alter mechanical properties of the sedimentary wedge and subsequently affect its seismogenic behavior. Site U1480 recovered input sediment to ~1420 meters below seafloor (mbsf), and sediment was sampled from 1150 to 1500 mbsf at Site U1481. To determine the Sr isotopic composition, acidified pore fluid samples recovered at sea were loaded directly onto columns containing EICHROM Sr-Spec resin and followed by analyses using a NU multicollector inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). We observed a marked increase in 87Sr/86Sr ratios to 0.71376 in the Sr contribution from alteration of terrigenous material from the Bengal-Nicobar Fan. This trend is reversed in the deeper sequence, where 87Sr/86Sr ratios decrease to 0.70820 in the deepest sample analyzed (1300 mbsf). Only the deepest sediment was recovered at Site U1481, and the pore fluids also show a decrease in 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.71296 at 1172 mbsf to 0.70913 at 1495 mbsf. 
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  4. Abstract

    The next core-collapse supernova in the Milky Way or its satellites will represent a once-in-a-generation opportunity to obtain detailed information about the explosion of a star and provide significant scientific insight for a variety of fields because of the extreme conditions found within. Supernovae in our galaxy are not only rare on a human timescale but also happen at unscheduled times, so it is crucial to be ready and use all available instruments to capture all possible information from the event. The first indication of a potential stellar explosion will be the arrival of a bright burst of neutrinos. Its observation by multiple detectors worldwide can provide an early warning for the subsequent electromagnetic fireworks, as well as signal to other detectors with significant backgrounds so they can store their recent data. The supernova early warning system (SNEWS) has been operating as a simple coincidence between neutrino experiments in automated mode since 2005. In the current era of multi-messenger astronomy there are new opportunities for SNEWS to optimize sensitivity to science from the next galactic supernova beyond the simple early alert. This document is the product of a workshop in June 2019 towards design of SNEWS 2.0, an upgraded SNEWS with enhanced capabilities exploiting the unique advantages of prompt neutrino detection to maximize the science gained from such a valuable event.

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  5. Abstract

    The nature of dark matter and properties of neutrinos are among the most pressing issues in contemporary particle physics. The dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber is the leading technology to cover the available parameter space for weakly interacting massive particles, while featuring extensive sensitivity to many alternative dark matter candidates. These detectors can also study neutrinos through neutrinoless double-beta decay and through a variety of astrophysical sources. A next-generation xenon-based detector will therefore be a true multi-purpose observatory to significantly advance particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, solar physics, and cosmology. This review article presents the science cases for such a detector.

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