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  1. Habituation and sensitization (nonassociative learning) are among the most fundamental forms of learning and memory behavior present in organisms that enable adaptation and learning in dynamic environments. Emulating such features of intelligence found in nature in the solid state can serve as inspiration for algorithmic simulations in artificial neural networks and potential use in neuromorphic computing. Here, we demonstrate nonassociative learning with a prototypical Mott insulator, nickel oxide (NiO), under a variety of external stimuli at and above room temperature. Similar to biological species such as Aplysia , habituation and sensitization of NiO possess time-dependent plasticity relying on both strength and time interval between stimuli. A combination of experimental approaches and first-principles calculations reveals that such learning behavior of NiO results from dynamic modulation of its defect and electronic structure. An artificial neural network model inspired by such nonassociative learning is simulated to show advantages for an unsupervised clustering task in accuracy and reducing catastrophic interference, which could help mitigate the stability–plasticity dilemma. Mott insulators can therefore serve as building blocks to examine learning behavior noted in biology and inspire new learning algorithms for artificial intelligence.
  2. Van der Waals (vdW) materials with magnetic order have been heavily pursued for fundamental physics as well as for device design. Despite the rapid advances, so far, they are mainly insulating or semiconducting, and none of them has a high electronic mobility—a property that is rare in layered vdW materials in general. The realization of a high-mobility vdW material that also exhibits magnetic order would open the possibility for novel magnetic twistronic or spintronic devices. Here, we report very high carrier mobility in the layered vdW antiferromagnet GdTe 3 . The electron mobility is beyond 60,000 cm 2 V −1 s −1 , which is the highest among all known layered magnetic materials, to the best of our knowledge. Among all known vdW materials, the mobility of bulk GdTe 3 is comparable to that of black phosphorus. By mechanical exfoliation, we further demonstrate that GdTe 3 can be exfoliated to ultrathin flakes of three monolayers.
  3. Abstract

    New developments in the field of topological matter are often driven by materials discovery, including novel topological insulators, Dirac semimetals, and Weyl semimetals. In the last few years, large efforts have been made to classify all known inorganic materials with respect to their topology. Unfortunately, a large number of topological materials suffer from non‐ideal band structures. For example, topological bands are frequently convoluted with trivial ones, and band structure features of interest can appear far below the Fermi level. This leaves just a handful of materials that are intensively studied. Finding strategies to design new topological materials is a solution. Here, a new mechanism is introduced, which is based on charge density waves and non‐symmorphic symmetry, to design an idealized Dirac semimetal. It is then shown experimentally that the antiferromagnetic compound GdSb0.46Te1.48is a nearly ideal Dirac semimetal based on the proposed mechanism, meaning that most interfering bands at the Fermi level are suppressed. Its highly unusual transport behavior points to a thus far unknown regime, in which Dirac carriers with Fermi energy very close to the node seem to gradually localize in the presence of lattice and magnetic disorder.