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    Stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean have fewer droplets and are more likely to exist in the predominately supercooled phase than clouds at similar temperatures over northern oceans. One likely reason is that this region has few continental and anthropogenic sources of cloud-nucleating particles that can form droplets and ice. In this work, we present an overview of aerosol particle types over the Southern Ocean, including new measurements made below, in and above clouds in this region. These measurements and others indicate that biogenic sulfur-based particles >0.1 μm diameter contribute the majority of cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations in summer. Ice nucleating particles tend to have more organic components, likely from sea-spray. Both types of cloud nucleating particles may increase in a warming climate likely to have less sea ice, more phytoplankton activity, and stronger winds over the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. Taken together, clouds over the Southern Ocean may become more reflective and partially counter the region’s expected albedo decrease due to diminishing sea ice. However, detailed modeling studies are needed to test this hypothesis due to the complexity of ocean-cloud-climate feedbacks in the region. 
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  3. Abstract

    Southern Ocean (S. Ocean) clouds are important for climate prediction. Yet previous global climate models failed to accurately represent cloud phase distributions in this observation‐sparse region. In this study, data from the Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol, Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES) experiment is compared to constrained simulations from a global climate model (the Community Atmosphere Model, CAM). Nudged versions of CAM are found to reproduce many of the features of detailed in situ observations, such as cloud location, cloud phase, and boundary layer structure. The simulation in CAM6 has improved its representation of S. Ocean clouds with adjustments to the ice nucleation and cloud microphysics schemes that permit more supercooled liquid. Comparisons between modeled and observed hydrometeor size distributions suggest that the modeled hydrometeor size distributions represent the dual peaked shape and form of observed distributions, which is remarkable given the scale difference between model and observations. Comparison to satellite observations of cloud physics is difficult due to model assumptions that do not match retrieval assumptions. Some biases in the model's representation of S. Ocean clouds and aerosols remain, but the detailed cloud physical parameterization provides a basis for process level improvement and direct comparisons to observations. This is crucial because cloud feedbacks and climate sensitivity are sensitive to the representation of S. Ocean clouds.

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  4. Abstract

    The abundance and sources of ice‐nucleating particles, particles required for heterogeneous ice nucleation, are long‐standing sources of uncertainty in quantifying aerosol‐cloud interactions. In this study, we demonstrate near closure between immersion freezing ice‐nucleating particle number concentration (nINPs) observations andnINPscalculated from simulated sea spray aerosol and dust. The Community Atmospheric Model with constrained meteorology was used to simulate aerosol concentrations at the Mace Head Research Station (North Atlantic) and over the Southern Ocean to the south of Tasmania (Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, Radiation, and atmospherIc Composition Over the southeRN ocean campaign). Model‐predictednINPswere within a factor of 10 ofnINPsobserved with an off‐line ice spectrometer at Mace Head Research Station and Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, Radiation, and atmospherIc Composition Over the southeRN ocean campaign, for 93% and 69% of observations, respectively. Simulated vertical profiles ofnINPsreveal that transported dust may be critical tonINPsin remote regions and that sea spray aerosol may be the dominate contributor to primary ice nucleation in Southern Ocean low‐level mixed‐phase clouds.

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  5. Abstract

    The formation of ice in clouds can strongly impact cloud properties and precipitation processes during storms, including atmospheric rivers. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles are relatively inefficient as ice nucleating particles (INPs) compared to mineral dust. However, due to the vast coverage of the Earth's surface by the oceans, a number of recent studies have focused on identifying sources of marine INPs, particularly in regions lacking a strong influence from dust. This study describes the integration, validation, and application of a system coupling a continuous flow diffusion chamber with a single particle mass spectrometer using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor to remove nonnucleated particles and selectively measure the composition of INPs with a detection efficiency of 3.10×10−4. In situ measurements of immersion freezing INP composition were made at a coastal site in California using the integrated system. Mineral dust particles were the most abundant ice crystal residual type during the sampling period and found to be ice active despite having undergone atmospheric processing. SSA were more abundant in ambient measurements but represented only a minor fraction of the ice crystal residual population at −31 °C. Notably, the SSA particles that activated were enriched with organic nitrogen species that were likely transferred from the ocean. Calculations of ice nucleation active site densities were within good agreement with previous studies of mineral dust and SSA.

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