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  1. Abstract We analyze the cooling and feedback properties of 48 galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.4 < z < 1.3 selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) catalogs to evolve like the progenitors of massive and well-studied systems at z ∼ 0. We estimate the radio power at the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) location of each cluster from an analysis of Australia Telescope Compact Array data. Assuming that the scaling relation between the radio power and active galactic nucleus (AGN) cavity power P cav observed at low redshift does not evolve with redshift, we use these measurements in order to estimate the expected AGN cavity power in the core of each system. We estimate the X-ray luminosity within the cooling radius L cool of each cluster from a joint analysis of the available Chandra X-ray and SPT Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) data. This allows us to characterize the redshift evolution of the P cav / L cool ratio. When combined with low-redshift results, these constraints enable investigations of the properties of the feedback–cooling cycle across 9 Gyr of cluster growth. We model the redshift evolution of this ratio measured for cool-core clusters by a log-normal distribution Log -  ( α + β z , σ 2 ) and constrain the slope of the mean evolution to β = −0.05 ± 0.47. This analysis improves the constraints on the slope of this relation by a factor of two. We find no evidence of redshift evolution of the feedback–cooling equilibrium in these clusters, which suggests that the onset of radio-mode feedback took place at an early stage of cluster formation. High values of P cav / L cool are found at the BCG location of noncool-core clusters, which might suggest that the timescales of the AGN feedback cycle and the cool core–noncool core transition are different. This work demonstrates that the joint analysis of radio, SZ, and X-ray data solidifies the investigation of AGN feedback at high redshifts. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. ABSTRACT Plasma serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) homeostasis is maintained through the combined processes of uptake (via the 5-HT transporter SERT, and others), degradation (via monoamine oxidase, MAO) and excretion. Previous studies have shown that inhibiting SERT, which would inhibit 5-HT uptake and degradation, attenuates parts of the cardiovascular hypoxia reflex in gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta), suggesting that these 5-HT clearance processes may be important during hypoxia exposure. Therefore, the goal of this experiment was to determine the effects of mild hypoxia on 5-HT uptake and degradation in the peripheral tissues of toadfish. We hypothesized that 5-HT uptake and degradation would be upregulated during hypoxia, resulting in lower plasma 5-HT, with uptake occurring in the gill, heart, liver and kidney. Fish were exposed to normoxia (97.6% O2 saturation, 155.6 Torr) or 2 min, 40 min or 24 h mild hypoxia (50% O2 saturation, ∼80 Torr), then injected with radiolabeled [3H]5-HT before blood, urine, bile and tissues were sampled. Plasma 5-HT levels were reduced by 40% after 40 min of hypoxia exposure and persisted through 24 h. 5-HT uptake by the gill was upregulated following 2 min of hypoxia exposure, and degradation in the gill was upregulated at 40 min and 24 h. Interestingly, there was no change in 5-HT uptake by the heart and degradation in the heart decreased by 58% within 2 min of hypoxia exposure and by 85% at 24 h. These results suggest that 5-HT clearance is upregulated during hypoxia and is likely driven, in part, by mechanisms within the gill and not the heart. 
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  3. Abstract

    We investigate the resolved kinematics of the molecular gas, as traced by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in CO (2−1), of 25 cluster member galaxies across three different clusters at a redshift ofz∼ 1.6. This is the first large-scale analysis of the molecular gas kinematics of cluster galaxies at this redshift. By separately estimating the rotation curve of the approaching and receding sides of each galaxy via kinematic modeling, we quantify the difference in total circular velocity to characterize the overall kinematic asymmetry of each galaxy. 3/14 of the galaxies in our sample that we are able to model have similar degrees of asymmetry as that observed in galaxies in the field at similar redshift based on observations of mainly ionized gas. However, this leaves 11/14 galaxies in our sample with significantly higher asymmetry, and some of these galaxies have degrees of asymmetry of up to ∼50 times higher than field galaxies observed at similar redshift. Some of these extreme cases also have one-sided tail-like morphology seen in the molecular gas, supporting a scenario of tidal and/or ram pressure interaction. Such stark differences in the kinematic asymmetry in clusters versus the field suggest the evolutionary influence of dense environments, established as being a major driver of galaxy evolution at low redshift, is also active in the high-redshift universe.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  4. We investigate structural properties of massive galaxy populations in the central regions (< 0.7  r 500 ) of five very massive ( M 200  > 4 × 10 14   M ⊙ ), high-redshift (1.4 ≲  z  ≲ 1.7) galaxy clusters from the 2500 deg 2 South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel’dovich effect (SPT-SZ) survey. We probe the connection between galaxy structure and broad stellar population properties at stellar masses of log( M / M ⊙ ) > 10.85. We find that quiescent and star-forming cluster galaxy populations are largely dominated by bulge- and disk-dominated sources, respectively, with relative contributions being fully consistent with those of field counterparts. At the same time, the enhanced quiescent galaxy fraction observed in these clusters with respect to the coeval field is reflected in a significant morphology-density relation, with bulge-dominated galaxies already clearly dominating the massive galaxy population in these clusters at z  ∼ 1.5. At face value, these observations show no significant environmental signatures in the correlation between broad structural and stellar population properties. In particular, the Sersic index and axis ratio distribution of massive, quiescent sources are consistent with field counterparts, in spite of the enhanced quiescent galaxy fraction in clusters. This consistency suggests a tight connection between quenching and structural evolution towards a bulge-dominated morphology, at least in the probed cluster regions and galaxy stellar mass range, irrespective of environment-related processes affecting star formation in cluster galaxies. We also probe the stellar mass–size relation of cluster galaxies, and find that star-forming and quiescent sources populate the mass–size plane in a manner largely similar to their field counterparts, with no evidence of a significant size difference for any probed sub-population. In particular, both quiescent and bulge-dominated cluster galaxies have average sizes at fixed stellar mass consistent with their counterparts in the field. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. ABSTRACT We present MUSE spectroscopy, Megacam imaging, and Chandra X-ray emission for SPT-CL J0307-6225, a $z = 0.58$ major merging galaxy cluster with a large BCG-SZ centroid separation and a highly disturbed X-ray morphology. The galaxy density distribution shows two main overdensities with separations of 0.144 and 0.017 arcmin to their respective BCGs. We characterize the central regions of the two colliding structures, namely 0307-6225N and 0307-6225S, finding velocity derived masses of M200, N = 2.44 ± 1.41 × 1014M⊙ and M200, S = 3.16 ± 1.88 × 1014M⊙, with a line-of-sight velocity difference of |Δv| = 342 km s−1. The total dynamically derived mass is consistent with the SZ derived mass of 7.63 h$_{70}^{-1}$ ± 1.36 × 1014M⊙. We model the merger using the Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code, estimating a merging angle of 36$^{+14}_{-12}$ ° with respect to the plane of the sky. Comparing with simulations of a merging system with a mass ratio of 1:3, we find that the best scenario is that of an ongoing merger that began 0.96$^{+0.31}_{-0.18}$ Gyr ago. We also characterize the galaxy population using Hδ and [O ii] λ3727 Å lines. We find that most of the emission-line galaxies belong to 0307-6225S, close to the X-ray peak position with a third of them corresponding to red-cluster sequence galaxies, and the rest to blue galaxies with velocities consistent with recent periods of accretion. Moreover, we suggest that 0307-6225S suffered a previous merger, evidenced through the two equally bright BCGs at the centre with a velocity difference of ∼674 km s−1. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hyroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is involved in a variety of peripheral processes. Arguably most notable is its role as a circulating vasoconstrictor in the plasma of vertebrates. Plasma 5-HT is maintained at constant levels under normal conditions through the processes of cellular uptake, degradation, and excretion, known collectively as clearance. However, the degree to which each individual component of clearance contributes to this whole animal response remains poorly understood. The goal of this experiment was to determine the extent to which transporter-mediated uptake and intracellular degradation contribute to 5-HT clearance in the model teleost Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Fish that were treated with the 5-HT transport inhibitors fluoxetine, buproprion, and decynium-22 had 1.47-fold higher plasma 5-HT concentrations and a 40% decrease in clearance rate compared to control fish. In contrast, fish treated with the MAO inhibitor clorgyline had a 1.54-fold increase in plasma 5-HT with no change in clearance rate. The results show that transporter-mediated 5-HT uptake plays an important role in controlling circulating 5-HT and whole body 5-HT homeostasis. 
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  7. Abstract We provide the first combined cosmological analysis of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck cluster catalogs. The aim is to provide an independent calibration for Planck scaling relations, exploiting the cosmological constraining power of the SPT-SZ cluster catalog and its dedicated weak lensing (WL) and X-ray follow-up observations. We build a new version of the Planck cluster likelihood. In the ν Λ CDM scenario, focusing on the mass slope and mass bias of Planck scaling relations, we find α SZ = 1.49 − 0.10 + 0.07 and 1 − b SZ = 0.69 − 0.14 + 0.07 , respectively. The results for the mass slope show a ∼4 σ departure from the self-similar evolution, α SZ ∼ 1.8. This shift is mainly driven by the matter density value preferred by SPT data, Ω m = 0.30 ± 0.03, lower than the one obtained by Planck data alone, Ω m = 0.37 − 0.06 + 0.02 . The mass bias constraints are consistent both with outcomes of hydrodynamical simulations and external WL calibrations, (1 − b ) ∼ 0.8, and with results required by the Planck cosmic microwave background cosmology, (1 − b ) ∼ 0.6. From this analysis, we obtain a new catalog of Planck cluster masses M 500 . We estimate the ratio between the published Planck M SZ masses and our derived masses M 500 , as a “measured mass bias,” 1 − b M . We analyze the mass, redshift, and detection noise dependence of 1 − b M , finding an increasing trend toward high redshift and low mass. These results mimic the effect of departure from self-similarity in cluster evolution, showing different dependencies for the low-mass, high-mass, low- z , and high- z regimes. 
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  8. ABSTRACT Expanding from previous work, we present weak-lensing (WL) measurements for a total sample of 30 distant (zmedian = 0.93) massive galaxy clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SPT-SZ) Survey, measuring galaxy shapes in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys images. We remove cluster members and preferentially select z ≳ 1.4 background galaxies via V − I colour, employing deep photometry from VLT/FORS2 and Gemini-South/GMOS. We apply revised calibrations for the WL shape measurements and the source redshift distribution to estimate the cluster masses. In combination with earlier Magellan/Megacam results for lower-redshifts clusters, we infer refined constraints on the scaling relation between the SZ detection significance and the cluster mass, in particular regarding its redshift evolution. The mass scale inferred from the WL data is lower by a factor $0.76^{+0.10}_{-0.14}$ (at our pivot redshift z = 0.6) compared to what would be needed to reconcile a flat Planck νΛCDM cosmology (in which the sum of the neutrino masses is a free parameter) with the observed SPT-SZ cluster counts. In order to sensitively test the level of (dis-)agreement between SPT clusters and Planck, further expanded WL follow-up samples are needed. 
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