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  1. Abstract Ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is the world’s leading environmental health risk factor. Reducing the PM 2.5 disease burden requires specific strategies that target dominant sources across multiple spatial scales. We provide a contemporary and comprehensive evaluation of sector- and fuel-specific contributions to this disease burden across 21 regions, 204 countries, and 200 sub-national areas by integrating 24 global atmospheric chemistry-transport model sensitivity simulations, high-resolution satellite-derived PM 2.5 exposure estimates, and disease-specific concentration response relationships. Globally, 1.05 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.74–1.36) million deaths were avoidable in 2017 by eliminating fossil-fuel combustion (27.3% of the total PM 2.5 burden), with coal contributing to over half. Other dominant global sources included residential (0.74 [0.52–0.95] million deaths; 19.2%), industrial (0.45 [0.32–0.58] million deaths; 11.7%), and energy (0.39 [0.28–0.51] million deaths; 10.2%) sectors. Our results show that regions with large anthropogenic contributions generally had the highest attributable deaths, suggesting substantial health benefits from replacing traditional energy sources.
  2. Abstract. Organic aerosol (OA), with a large biogenic fraction in the summertime southeast US, adversely impacts air quality and human health. Stringent airquality controls have recently reduced anthropogenic pollutants including sulfate, whose impact on OA remains unclear. Three filter measurementnetworks provide long-term constraints on the sensitivity of OA to changes in inorganic species, including sulfate and ammonia. The 2000–2013summertime OA decreases by 1.7 % yr−1–1.9 % yr−1 with little month-to-month variability, while sulfatedeclines rapidly with significant monthly difference in the early 2000s. In contrast, modeled OA from a chemical-transport model (GEOS-Chem) decreasesby 4.9 % yr−1 with much larger monthly variability, largely due to the predominant role of acid-catalyzed reactive uptake ofepoxydiols (IEPOX) onto sulfate. The overestimated modeled OA dependence on sulfate can be improved by implementing a coating effect and assumingconstant aerosol acidity, suggesting the needs to revisit IEPOX reactive uptake in current models. Our work highlights the importance of secondaryOA formation pathways that are weakly dependent on inorganic aerosol in a region that is heavily influenced by both biogenic and anthropogenicemissions.
  3. Abstract. Airborne and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentrations, chemicalcomposition, and gas-phase precursors were obtained in three valleys innorthern Utah (USA). The measurements were part of the Utah Winter FineParticulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in January–February 2017. Totalaerosol mass concentrations of PM1 were measured from a Twin Otteraircraft, with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). PM1 concentrationsranged from less than 2µgm−3 during clean periods to over100µgm−3 during the most polluted episodes, consistent withPM2.5 total mass concentrations measured concurrently at groundsites. Across the entire region, increases in total aerosol mass above∼2µgm−3 were associated with increases in theammonium nitrate mass fraction, clearly indicating that the highest aerosolmass loadings in the region were predominantly attributable to an increase inammonium nitrate. The chemical composition was regionally homogenous fortotal aerosol mass concentrations above 17.5µgm−3, with 74±5% (average±standard deviation) ammonium nitrate, 18±3%organic material, 6±3% ammonium sulfate, and 2±2%ammonium chloride. Vertical profiles of aerosol mass and volume in the regionshowed variable concentrations with height in the polluted boundary layer.Higher average mass concentrations were observed within themore »first few hundredmeters above ground level in all three valleys during pollution episodes. Gas-phase measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) duringthe pollution episodes revealed that in the Cache and Utah valleys, partitioningof inorganic semi-volatiles to the aerosol phase was usually limited by theamount of gas-phase nitric acid, with NH3 being in excess. The inorganicspecies were compared with the ISORROPIA thermodynamic model. Total inorganicaerosol mass concentrations were calculated for various decreases in totalnitrate and total ammonium. For pollution episodes, our simulations of a50% decrease in total nitrate lead to a 46±3% decrease in totalPM1 mass. A simulated 50% decrease in total ammonium leads to a36±17%µgm−3 decrease in total PM1 mass, over the entirearea of the study. Despite some differences among locations, ourresults showed a higher sensitivity to decreasing nitric acid concentrationsand the importance of ammonia at the lowest total nitrate conditions. In theSalt Lake Valley, both HNO3 and NH3 concentrations controlledaerosol formation.

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