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  1. Meier-Schellersheim, Martin (Ed.)
    Cells create physical connections with the extracellular environment through adhesions. Nascent adhesions form at the leading edge of migrating cells and either undergo cycles of disassembly and reassembly, or elongate and stabilize at the end of actin fibers. How adhesions assemble has been addressed in several studies, but the exact role of actin fibers in the elongation and stabilization of nascent adhesions remains largely elusive. To address this question, here we extended our computational model of adhesion assembly by incorporating an actin fiber that locally promotes integrin activation. The model revealed that an actin fiber promotes adhesion stabilization and elongation. Actomyosin contractility from the fiber also promotes adhesion stabilization and elongation, by strengthening integrin-ligand interactions, but only up to a force threshold. Above this force threshold, most integrin-ligand bonds fail, and the adhesion disassembles. In the absence of contraction, actin fibers still support adhesions stabilization. Collectively, our results provide a picture in which myosin activity is dispensable for adhesion stabilization and elongation under an actin fiber, offering a framework for interpreting several previous experimental observations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 6, 2024
  2. Abstract For over 40 years, measurements of the nucleation rates in a large number of silicate glasses have indicated a breakdown in the Classical Nucleation Theory at temperatures below that of the peak nucleation rate. The data show that instead of steadily decreasing with decreasing temperature, the work of critical cluster formation enters a plateau and even starts to increase. Many explanations have been offered to explain this anomaly, but none have provided a satisfactory answer. We present an experimental approach to demonstrate explicitly for the example of a 5BaO ∙ 8SiO 2 glass that the anomaly is not a real phenomenon, but instead an artifact arising from an insufficient heating time at low temperatures. Heating times much longer than previously used at a temperature 50 K below the peak nucleation rate temperature give results that are consistent with the predictions of the Classical Nucleation Theory. These results raise the question of whether the claimed anomaly is also an artifact in other glasses.
  3. Abstract Nucleation is generally viewed as a structural fluctuation that passes a critical size to eventually become a stable emerging new phase. However, this concept leaves out many details, such as changes in cluster composition and competing pathways to the new phase. In this work, both experimental and computer modeling studies are used to understand the cluster composition and pathways. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics approaches are used to analyze the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to the nucleation landscape in barium silicate glasses. Experimental techniques examine the resulting polycrystals that form. Both the modeling and experimental data indicate that a silica rich core plays a dominant role in the nucleation process.
  4. Abstract

    The manuscript titled “Modeling nonisothermal crystallization in a BaO∙2SiO2glass” contains two minor mistakes. This errata acknowledges and corrects the errors. The corrections clarify the details of the simulations performed in the original work and do not impact the results.

  5. Abstract

    The accuracy of a differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique for predicting the temperature range of significant nucleation is examined in a BaO∙2SiO2glass by iterative numerical calculations. The numerical model takes account of time‐dependent nucleation, finite particle size, size‐dependent crystal growth rates, and surface crystallization. The calculations were made using the classical and, for the first time, the diffuse interface theories of nucleation. The results of the calculations are in agreement with experimental measurements, demonstrating the validity of the DTA technique. They show that this is independent of the DTA scan rate used and that surface crystallization has a negligible effect for the glass particle sizes studied. A breakdown of the Stokes‐Einstein relation between viscosity and the diffusion coefficient is demonstrated for low temperatures, near the maximum nucleation rate. However, it is shown that accurate values for the diffusion coefficient can be obtained from the induction time for nucleation and the growth velocity in this temperature range.