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  1. Abstract Deep learning has become a widespread tool in both science and industry. However, continued progress is hampered by the rapid growth in energy costs of ever-larger deep neural networks. Optical neural networks provide a potential means to solve the energy-cost problem faced by deep learning. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an optical neural network based on optical dot products that achieves 99% accuracy on handwritten-digit classification using ~3.1 detected photons per weight multiplication and ~90% accuracy using ~0.66 photons (~2.5 × 10 −19  J of optical energy) per weight multiplication. The fundamental principle enabling our sub-photon-per-multiplication demonstration—noise reduction from the accumulation ofmore »scalar multiplications in dot-product sums—is applicable to many different optical-neural-network architectures. Our work shows that optical neural networks can achieve accurate results using extremely low optical energies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Deep-learning models have become pervasive tools in science and engineering. However, their energy requirements now increasingly limit their scalability 1 . Deep-learning accelerators 2–9 aim to perform deep learning energy-efficiently, usually targeting the inference phase and often by exploiting physical substrates beyond conventional electronics. Approaches so far 10–22 have been unable to apply the backpropagation algorithm to train unconventional novel hardware in situ. The advantages of backpropagation have made it the de facto training method for large-scale neural networks, so this deficiency constitutes a major impediment. Here we introduce a hybrid in situ–in silico algorithm, called physics-aware training, that applies backpropagation tomore »train controllable physical systems. Just as deep learning realizes computations with deep neural networks made from layers of mathematical functions, our approach allows us to train deep physical neural networks made from layers of controllable physical systems, even when the physical layers lack any mathematical isomorphism to conventional artificial neural network layers. To demonstrate the universality of our approach, we train diverse physical neural networks based on optics, mechanics and electronics to experimentally perform audio and image classification tasks. Physics-aware training combines the scalability of backpropagation with the automatic mitigation of imperfections and noise achievable with in situ algorithms. Physical neural networks have the potential to perform machine learning faster and more energy-efficiently than conventional electronic processors and, more broadly, can endow physical systems with automatically designed physical functionalities, for example, for robotics 23–26 , materials 27–29 and smart sensors 30–32 .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 27, 2023
  4. Abstract With rapid progress across platforms for quantum systems, the problem of many-body quantum state reconstruction for noisy quantum states becomes an important challenge. There has been a growing interest in approaching the problem of quantum state reconstruction using generative neural network models. Here we propose the ‘attention-based quantum tomography’ (AQT), a quantum state reconstruction using an attention mechanism-based generative network that learns the mixed state density matrix of a noisy quantum state. AQT is based on the model proposed in ‘Attention is all you need’ by Vaswani et al (2017 NIPS ) that is designed to learn long-range correlationsmore »in natural language sentences and thereby outperform previous natural language processing (NLP) models. We demonstrate not only that AQT outperforms earlier neural-network-based quantum state reconstruction on identical tasks but that AQT can accurately reconstruct the density matrix associated with a noisy quantum state experimentally realized in an IBMQ quantum computer. We speculate the success of the AQT stems from its ability to model quantum entanglement across the entire quantum system much as the attention model for NLP captures the correlations among words in a sentence.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 23, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Abstract

    Quantum annealing is a promising approach to heuristically solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. However, the connectivity limitations in current devices lead to an exponential degradation of performance on general problems. We propose an architecture for a quantum annealer that achieves full connectivity and full programmability while using a number of physical resources only linear in the number of spins. We do so by application of carefully engineered periodic modulations of oscillator-based qubits, resulting in a Floquet Hamiltonian in which all the interactions are tunable. This flexibility comes at the cost of the coupling strengths between qubits being smaller thanmore »they would be compared with direct coupling, which increases the demand on coherence times with increasing problem size. We analyze a specific hardware proposal of our architecture based on Josephson parametric oscillators. Our results show how the minimum-coherence-time requirements imposed by our scheme scale, and we find that the requirements are not prohibitive for fully connected problems with up to at least 1000 spins. Our approach could also have impact beyond quantum annealing, since it readily extends to bosonic quantum simulators, and would allow the study of models with arbitrary connectivity between lattice sites.

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