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Framework and tools for the simulation and analysis of the radio emission from air showers at IceCubeAbstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules that have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
Abstract The centrality of heavy-ion collisions is directly related to the created medium in these interactions. A procedure to determine the centrality of collisions with the LHCb detector is implemented for lead-lead collisions at √ s NN = 5 TeV and lead-neon fixed-target collisions at √ s NN = 69 GeV. The energy deposits in the electromagnetic calorimeter are used to determine and define the centrality classes. The correspondence between the number of participants and the centrality for the lead-lead collisions is in good agreement with the correspondence found in other experiments, and the centrality measurements for the lead-neon collisions presented here are performed for the first time in fixed-target collisions at the LHC.Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
Abstract The identification of charm jets is achieved at LHCb for data collected in 2015–2018 using a method based on the properties of displaced vertices reconstructed and matched with jets. The performance of this method is determined using a dijet calibration dataset recorded by the LHCb detector and selected such that the jets are unbiased in quantities used in the tagging algorithm. The charm-tagging efficiency is reported as a function of the transverse momentum of the jet. The measured efficiencies are compared to those obtained from simulation and found to be in good agreement.Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
Abstract The first search for the doubly heavy baryon and a search for the baryon are performed using collision data collected via the experiment from 2016 to 2018 at a centre-of-mass energy of , corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.2 . The baryons are reconstructed via their decays to and . No significant excess is found for invariant masses between 6700 and 7300 , in a rapidity range from 2.0 to 4.5 and a transverse momentum range from 2 to 20 . Upper limits are set on the ratio of the and production cross-section times the branching fraction to ( ) relative to that of the ( ) baryon, for different lifetime hypotheses, at 95% confidence level. The upper limits range from to for the ( ) decay, and from to for the ( ) decay, depending on the considered mass and lifetime of the ( ) baryon.