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Creators/Authors contains: "Mehrdad, Sarmad"

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  1. Abstract

    Unrecognized deterioration of COVID-19 patients can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Most existing deterioration prediction models require a large number of clinical information, typically collected in hospital settings, such as medical images or comprehensive laboratory tests. This is infeasible for telehealth solutions and highlights a gap in deterioration prediction models based on minimal data, which can be recorded at a large scale in any clinic, nursing home, or even at the patient’s home. In this study, we develop and compare two prognostic models that predict if a patient will experience deterioration in the forthcoming 3 to 24 h. The models sequentially process routine triadic vital signs: (a) oxygen saturation, (b) heart rate, and (c) temperature. These models are also provided with basic patient information, including sex, age, vaccination status, vaccination date, and status of obesity, hypertension, or diabetes. The difference between the two models is the way that the temporal dynamics of the vital signs are processed. Model #1 utilizes a temporally-dilated version of the Long-Short Term Memory model (LSTM) for temporal processes, and Model #2 utilizes a residual temporal convolutional network (TCN) for this purpose. We train and evaluate the models using data collected from 37,006 COVID-19 patients at NYU Langone Health in New York, USA. The convolution-based model outperforms the LSTM based model, achieving a high AUROC of 0.8844–0.9336 for 3 to 24 h deterioration prediction on a held-out test set. We also conduct occlusion experiments to evaluate the importance of each input feature, which reveals the significance of continuously monitoring the variation of the vital signs. Our results show the prospect for accurate deterioration forecast using a minimum feature set that can be relatively easily obtained using wearable devices and self-reported patient information.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has highly impacted the communities globally by reprioritizing the means through which various societal sectors operate. Among these sectors, healthcare providers and medical workers have been impacted prominently due to the massive increase in demand for medical services under unprecedented circumstances. Hence, any tool that can help the compliance with social guidelines for COVID-19 spread prevention will have a positive impact on managing and controlling the virus outbreak and reducing the excessive burden on the healthcare system. This perspective article disseminates the perspectives of the authors regarding the use of novel biosensors and intelligent algorithms embodied in wearable IoMT frameworks for tackling this issue. We discuss how with the use of smart IoMT wearables certain biomarkers can be tracked for detection of COVID-19 in exposed individuals. We enumerate several machine learning algorithms which can be used to process a wide range of collected biomarkers for detecting (a) multiple symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and (b) the dynamical likelihood of contracting the virus through interpersonal interaction. Eventually, we enunciate how a systematic use of smart wearable IoMT devices in various social sectors can intelligently help controlling the spread of COVID-19 in communities as they enter the reopening phase. We explain how this framework can benefit individuals and their medical correspondents by introducing Systems for Symptom Decoding (SSD), and how the use of this technology can be generalized on a societal level for the control of spread by introducing Systems for Spread Tracing (SST). 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    The advent of telerobotic systems has revolutionized various aspects of the industry and human life. This technology is designed to augment human sensorimotor capabilities to extend them beyond natural competence. Classic examples are space and underwater applications when distance and access are the two major physical barriers to be combated with this technology. In modern examples, telerobotic systems have been used in several clinical applications, including teleoperated surgery and telerehabilitation. In this regard, there has been a significant amount of research and development due to the major benefits in terms of medical outcomes. Recently telerobotic systems are combined with advanced artificial intelligence modules to better share the agency with the operator and open new doors of medical automation. In this review paper, we have provided a comprehensive analysis of the literature considering various topologies of telerobotic systems in the medical domain while shedding light on different levels of autonomy for this technology, starting from direct control, going up to command-tracking autonomous telerobots. Existing challenges, including instrumentation, transparency, autonomy, stochastic communication delays, and stability, in addition to the current direction of research related to benefit in telemedicine and medical automation, and future vision of this technology, are discussed in this review paper. 
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