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  1. By studying charge trapping in germanium detectors operating at temperatures below 10 K, we demonstrate for the first time that the formation of cluster dipole states from residual impurities is responsible for charge trapping. Two planar detectors with different impurity levels and types are used in this study. When drifting the localized charge carriers created by α particles from the top surface across a detector at a lower bias voltage, significant charge trapping is observed when compared to operating at a higher bias voltage. The amount of charge trapping shows a strong dependence on the type of charge carriers. Electrons are trapped more than holes in a p-type detector, while holes are trapped more than electrons in an n-type detector. When both electrons and holes are drifted simultaneously using the widespread charge carriers created by γ rays inside the detector, the amount of charge trapping shows no dependence on the polarity of bias voltage. 
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  2. Abstract The detection of low-energy deposition in the range of sub-eV through ionization using germanium (Ge) with a bandgap of $$\sim $$ ∼ 0.7 eV requires internal amplification of the charge signal. This can be achieved through high electric field that accelerates charge carriers, which can then generate more charge carriers. The minimum electric field required to generate internal charge amplification is derived for different temperatures. We report the development of a planar point contact Ge detector in terms of its fabrication and the measurements of its leakage current and capacitance as a function of applied bias voltage. With the determination of the measured depletion voltage, the field distribution is calculated using GeFiCa, which predicts that the required electric field for internal charge amplification can be achieved in proximity to the point contact. The energy response to an Am-241 source is characterized and discussed. We conclude that such a detector with internal charge amplification can be used to search for low-mass dark matter. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract For the first time, electrical conduction mechanisms in the disordered material system is experimentally studied for p-type amorphous germanium (a-Ge) used for high-purity Ge detector contacts. The localization length and the hopping parameters in a-Ge are determined using the surface leakage current measured from three high-purity planar Ge detectors. The temperature dependent hopping distance and hopping energy are obtained for a-Ge fabricated as the electrical contact materials for high-purity Ge planar detectors. As a result, we find that the hopping energy in a-Ge increases as temperature increases while the hopping distance in a-Ge decreases as temperature increases. The localization length of a-Ge is on the order of $$2.13^{-0.05}_{+0.07}\mathrm{{A}}^\circ $$ 2 . 13 + 0.07 - 0.05 A ∘ to $$5.07^{-0.83}_{+2.58}\mathrm{{A}}^\circ $$ 5 . 07 + 2.58 - 0.83 A ∘ , depending on the density of states near the Fermi energy level within bandgap. Using these parameters, we predict that the surface leakage current from a Ge detector with a-Ge contacts can be much smaller than one yocto amp (yA) at helium temperature, suitable for rare-event physics searches. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024