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  1. Abstract Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) may originate from a wide variety of explosion scenarios and progenitor channels. They exhibit a factor of ≈10 difference in brightness and thus a differentiation in the mass of 56 Ni → 56 Co → 56 Fe. We present a study on the fate of positrons within SNe Ia in order to evaluate their escape fractions and energy spectra. Our detailed Monte Carlo transport simulations for positrons and γ -rays include both β + decay of 56 Co and pair production. We simulate a wide variety of explosion scenarios, including the explosion of white dwarfs (WDs) close to the Chandrasekhar mass ( M Ch ), He-triggered explosions of sub- M Ch WDs, and dynamical mergers of two WDs. For each model, we study the influence of the size and morphology of the progenitor magnetic field between 1 and 10 13 G. Population synthesis based on the observed brightness distribution of SNe Ia was used to estimate the overall contributions to Galactic positrons due to escape from SNe Ia. We find that this is dominated by SNe Ia of normal brightness, where variations in the distribution of emitted positrons are small. We estimate a total SNe Ia contribution to Galactic positrons of <2% and, depending on the magnetic field morphology, <6–20% for M Ch and sub- M Ch , respectively. 
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  2. Abstract

    We present a JWST mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum of the underluminous Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) 2022xkq, obtained with the medium-resolution spectrometer on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) ∼130 days post-explosion. We identify the first MIR lines beyond 14μm in SN Ia observations. We find features unique to underluminous SNe Ia, including the following: isolated emission of stable Ni, strong blends of [Tiii], and large ratios of singly ionized to doubly ionized species in both [Ar] and [Co]. Comparisons to normal-luminosity SNe Ia spectra at similar phases show a tentative trend between the width of the [Coiii] 11.888μm feature and the SN light-curve shape. Using non-LTE-multi-dimensional radiation hydro simulations and the observed electron capture elements, we constrain the mass of the exploding WD. The best-fitting model shows that SN 2022xkq is consistent with an off-center delayed-detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar mass WD (MWD≈1.37M) of high central density (ρc≥ 2.0 × 109g cm−3) seen equator-on, which producedM(56Ni) =0.324MandM(58Ni) ≥0.06M. The observed line widths are consistent with the overall abundance distribution; and the narrow stable Ni lines indicate little to no mixing in the central regions, favoring central ignition of subsonic carbon burning followed by an off-center deflagration-to-detonation transition beginning at a single point. Additional observations may further constrain the physics revealing the presence of additional species including Cr and Mn. Our work demonstrates the power of using the full coverage of MIRI in combination with detailed modeling to elucidate the physics of SNe Ia at a level not previously possible.

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