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  1. Abstract

    Groundwater mixing dynamics play a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycling of shallow wetlands. In this paper, we conducted groundwater simulations to investigate the combined effects of evaporation and local heterogeneity on mixing dynamics in shallow wetland sediments. The results show that evaporation causes groundwater and solutes to upwell from deep sediments to the surface. As the solute reaches the surface, evaporation enhances the accumulation of the solute near the surface, resulting in a higher solute concentration than in deep sediments. Mapping of flow topology reveals that local heterogeneity generates spatially varied mixing patterns mainly along preferential flow pathways. The upwelling of groundwater induced by surface evaporation through heterogeneous sediments is likely to create distinct mixing hotspots that differ spatially from those generated by lateral preferential flows driven by large‐scale hydraulic gradients, which enhances the overall mixing in the subsurface. These findings have strong implications for biogeochemical processing in wetlands.

     
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  2. Abstract We report on the development and extensive characterization of co-sputtered tantala–zirconia (Ta 2 O 5 -ZrO 2 ) thin films, with the goal to decrease coating Brownian noise in present and future gravitational-wave detectors. We tested a variety of sputtering processes of different energies and deposition rates, and we considered the effect of different values of cation ratio η = Zr/(Zr + Ta) and of post-deposition heat treatment temperature T a on the optical and mechanical properties of the films. Co-sputtered zirconia proved to be an efficient way to frustrate crystallization in tantala thin films, allowing for a substantial increase of the maximum annealing temperature and hence for a decrease of coating mechanical loss φ c . The lowest average coating loss was observed for an ion-beam sputtered sample with η = 0.485 ± 0.004 annealed at 800 °C, yielding φ ¯ c = 1.8 × 1 0 − 4 rad. All coating samples showed cracks after annealing. Although in principle our measurements are sensitive to such defects, we found no evidence that our results were affected. The issue could be solved, at least for ion-beam sputtered coatings, by decreasing heating and cooling rates down to 7 °C h −1 . While we observed as little optical absorption as in the coatings of current gravitational-wave interferometers (0.5 parts per million), further development will be needed to decrease light scattering and avoid the formation of defects upon annealing. 
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  3. Abstract

    A density‐dependent, variably saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model was used to investigate the influence of swash motions on subsurface flow and moisture dynamics in beach aquifers with heterogeneous distributions of hydraulic conductivity (K) and capillarity. The numerical simulations were performed within a Monte Carlo framework using field measurements conducted in the swash zone of a sandy beach. Our results show that heterogeneous capillarity causes spatially variable capillary rise above the groundwater table. In response to swash motions, heterogeneity creates capillary barriers that result in pockets of elevated moisture content beneath the swash zone. These moisture hotspots persist within the unsaturated zone even at ebb tide when the swash motions recede seaward. Heterogeneous capillarity also results in highly tortuous preferential flow paths and alters the flow rates from the sand surface to the water table. HeterogeneousKgreatly enhances the seawater infiltration into the swash zone and modulates its spatial distribution along the beach surface. Due to heterogeneousKand capillarity, complex mixing patterns emerge. Both strain‐dominated and vorticity‐dominated flow regions develop and dissipate as tides and waves move across the beach surface. Complex mixing patterns of seawater percolating from the swash zone surface to the water table, with localized areas of high and low mixing intensities, are further demonstrated by analysis of dilution index. Our findings reveal the influence of geologic heterogeneity on swash zone moisture and flow dynamics, which may have important implications for sediment transport and chemical processing in beach aquifers.

     
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  5. Abstract

    Intertidal aquifers are hotspots of biogeochemical cycling where nutrients and contaminants are processed prior to discharge to the ocean. The nature of the dynamic subsurface mixing zone is a critical control on mitigating reactions. Simulation of density‐dependent, variably saturated flow and salt transport incorporating realistic representations of aquifer heterogeneity was conducted within a Monte Carlo framework to investigate influence of nonuniform permeability on intertidal groundwater flow and salt transport dynamics. Results show that heterogeneity coupled with tides creates transient preferential flow paths within the intertidal zone, evolving multiple circulation cells and fingering‐type salinity distributions. Due to heterogeneity, strain‐dominated (intense mixing) and vorticity‐dominated (low mixing) flow regions coexist at small spatial scales, and their spatial extent reaches peaks at high tide and low tide. Such topological characteristics reveal complex tempo‐spatial mixing patterns for intertidal flow with localized areas of high and low mixing intensities, which have implications for intertidal biogeochemical processing.

     
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  7. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  8. Abstract The global network of gravitational-wave observatories now includes five detectors, namely LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, Virgo, KAGRA, and GEO 600. These detectors collected data during their third observing run, O3, composed of three phases: O3a starting in 2019 April and lasting six months, O3b starting in 2019 November and lasting five months, and O3GK starting in 2020 April and lasting two weeks. In this paper we describe these data and various other science products that can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at https://gwosc.org . The main data set, consisting of the gravitational-wave strain time series that contains the astrophysical signals, is released together with supporting data useful for their analysis and documentation, tutorials, as well as analysis software packages. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024