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Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
Despite renewed interest, development of chemical biology methods to study peptidoglycan metabolism has lagged in comparison to the glycobiology field in general. To address this, a panel of diamides were screened against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae to identify inhibitors of bacterial growth. The screen identified the diamide masarimycin as a bacteriostatic inhibitor of S. pneumoniae growth with an MIC of 8 µM. The diamide inhibited detergent-induced autolysis in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating perturbation of peptidoglycan degradation as the mode-of-action. Cell based screening of masarimycin against a panel of autolysin mutants, identified a higher MIC against a Δ lytB strain lackingmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
Abstract Spectral lines of ammonia, NH 3 , are useful probes of the physical conditions in dense molecular cloud cores. In addition to advantages in spectroscopy, ammonia has also been suggested to be resistant to freezing onto grain surfaces, which should make it a superior tool for studying the interior parts of cold, dense cores. Here we present high-resolution NH 3 observations with the Very Large Array and Green Bank Telescope toward a prestellar core. These observations show an outer region with a fractional NH 3 abundance of X (NH 3 ) = (1.975 ± 0.005) × 10 −8 (±10%more »Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 27, 2023
North American Clovis Point Form and Performance III: An Experimental Assessment of Knife Cutting EfficiencyFree, publicly-accessible full text available December 29, 2022
Microbial transmission from parent to offspring is hypothesized to be widespread in vertebrates. However, evidence for this is limited as many evolutionarily important clades remain unexamined. There is currently no data on the microbiota associated with any Chondrichthyan species during embryonic development, despite the global distribution, ecological importance, and phylogenetic position of this clade. In this study, we take the first steps towards filling this gap by investigating the microbiota associated with embryonic development in the little skate,
Leucoraja erinacea,a common North Atlantic species and popular system for chondrichthyan biology. Methods
To assess the potential for bacterial transmission in an oviparousmore »
We identify site-specific and stage-specific microbiota dominated by the bacterial phyla
Proteobacteriaand Bacteroidetes. This composition is similar to, but distinct from, that of previously published data on the adult microbiota of other chondrichthyan species. Our data reveal that the skate egg capsule harbors a highly diverse bacterial community–particularly on the internal surface of the capsule–and facilitates intergenerational microbial transfer to the offspring. Embryonic skin and external gill tissues host similar bacterial communities; the skin and gill communities later diverge as the internal gills and skin denticles develop. Conclusions
Our study is the first exploration of the chondrichthyan microbiota throughout ontogeny and provides the first evidence of vertical transmission in this group.
Abstract Background A robust molecular phylogeny is fundamental for developing a stable classification and providing a solid framework to understand patterns of diversification, historical biogeography, and character evolution. As the sixth largest angiosperm family, Lamiaceae, or the mint family, consitutes a major source of aromatic oil, wood, ornamentals, and culinary and medicinal herbs, making it an exceptionally important group ecologically, ethnobotanically, and floristically. The lack of a reliable phylogenetic framework for this family has thus far hindered broad-scale biogeographic studies and our comprehension of diversification. Although significant progress has been made towards clarifying Lamiaceae relationships during the past three decades, themore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
BAP1 forms a trimer with HMGB1 and HDAC1 that modulates gene × environment interaction with asbestosCarriers of heterozygous germline BAP1 mutations ( BAP1 +/− ) are affected by the “BAP1 cancer syndrome.” Although they can develop almost any cancer type, they are unusually susceptible to asbestos carcinogenesis and mesothelioma. Here we investigate why among all carcinogens, BAP1 mutations cooperate with asbestos. Asbestos carcinogenesis and mesothelioma have been linked to a chronic inflammatory process promoted by the extracellular release of the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). We report that BAP1 +/− cells secrete increased amounts of HMGB1, and that BAP1 +/− carriers have detectable serum levels of acetylated HMGB1 that further increase when they developmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 30, 2022
Abstract. In the global methane budget, the largest natural sourceis attributed to wetlands, which encompass all ecosystems composed ofwaterlogged or inundated ground, capable of methane production. Among them,northern peatlands that store large amounts of soil organic carbon have beenfunctioning, since the end of the last glaciation period, as long-termsources of methane (CH4) and are one of the most significant methanesources among wetlands. To reduce uncertainty of quantifying methane flux in theglobal methane budget, it is of significance to understand the underlyingprocesses for methane production and fluxes in northern peatlands. A methanemodel that features methane production and transport by plants, ebullitionprocessmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
Suppose Alice and Bob each start with private randomness and no other input, and they wish to engage in a protocol in which Alice ends up with a set x ⊆ [ n ] and Bob ends up with a set y ⊆ [ n ], such that ( x , y ) is uniformly distributed over all pairs of disjoint sets. We prove that for some constant β < 1, this requires Ω ( n ) communication even to get within statistical distance 1− β n of the target distribution. Previously, Ambainis, Schulman, Ta-Shma, Vazirani, and Wigderson (FOCS 1998)more »