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Creators/Authors contains: "Milburn, Reilly P."

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  1. Abstract

    The dispersed remnants of stellar nurseries, stellar associations, provide unparalleled samples of coeval stars critical for studies of stellar and planetary formation and evolution. The Carina Stellar Association is one of the closest stellar associations to Earth, and yet measurements of its age have varied from 13 to 45 Myr. We aim to update the age of Carina using the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) method. We obtain new measurements of the Li 6708 Å absorption feature in likely members using optical spectra from the Goodman High Throughput Spectrograph on SOAR and NRES on LCO. We detect the depletion boundary atMK≃ 6.8 (M5). This age is consistent within uncertainties across six different models, including those that account for magnetic fields and spots. We also estimate the age through analysis of the group’s overall variability, and by comparing the association members’ color–magnitude diagram to stellar evolutionary models using a Gaussian Mixture Model, recovering ages consistent with the LDB. Combining these age measures we obtain an age for the Carina association of415+3Myr. The resulting age agrees with the older end of previous age measurements and is consistent with the lithium depletion age for the neighboring Tucana-Horologium moving group.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We report the discovery and characterization of a nearby (∼85 pc), older (27 ± 3 Myr), distributed stellar population near Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC), initially identified by searching for stars comoving with a candidate transiting planet from TESS (HD 109833; TOI 1097). We determine the association membership using Gaia kinematics, color–magnitude information, and rotation periods of candidate members. We measure its age using isochrones, gyrochronology, and Li depletion. While the association is near known populations of LCC, we find that it is older than any previously found LCC subgroup (10–16 Myr), and distinct in both position and velocity. In addition to the candidate planets around HD 109833, the association contains four directly imaged planetary-mass companions around three stars, YSES-1, YSES-2, and HD 95086, all of which were previously assigned membership in the younger LCC. Using the Notch pipeline, we identify a second candidate transiting planet around HD 109833. We use a suite of ground-based follow-up observations to validate the two transit signals as planetary in nature. HD 109833 b and c join the small but growing population of <100 Myr transiting planets from TESS. HD 109833 has a rotation period and Li abundance indicative of a young age (≲100 Myr), but a position and velocity on the outskirts of the new population, lower Li levels than similar members, and a color–magnitude diagram position below model predictions for 27 Myr. So, we cannot reject the possibility that HD 109833 is a young field star coincidentally nearby the population.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Mature super-Earths and sub-Neptunes are predicted to be ≃ Jovian radius when younger than 10 Myr. Thus, we expect to find 5–15Rplanets around young stars even if their older counterparts harbor none. We report the discovery and validation of TOI 1227b, a 0.85 ± 0.05RJ(9.5R) planet transiting a very-low-mass star (0.170 ± 0.015M) every 27.4 days. TOI 1227's kinematics and strong lithium absorption confirm that it is a member of a previously discovered subgroup in the Lower Centaurus Crux OB association, which we designate the Musca group. We derive an age of 11 ± 2 Myr for Musca, based on lithium, rotation, and the color–magnitude diagram of Musca members. The TESS data and ground-based follow-up show a deep (2.5%) transit. We use multiwavelength transit observations and radial velocities from the IGRINS spectrograph to validate the signal as planetary in nature, and we obtain an upper limit on the planet mass of ≃0.5MJ. Because such large planets are exceptionally rare around mature low-mass stars, we suggest that TOI 1227b is still contracting and will eventually turn into one of the more common <5Rplanets.

     
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