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  1. Abstract

    Pyrrolysine (Pyl, O) exists in nature as the 22ndproteinogenic amino acid. Despite being a fundamental building block of proteins, studies of Pyl have been hindered by the difficulty and inefficiency of both its chemical and biological syntheses. Here, we improve Pyl biosynthesis via rational engineering and directed evolution of the entire biosynthetic pathway. To accommodate toxicity of Pyl biosynthetic genes inEscherichia coli, we also develop Alternating Phage Assisted Non-Continuous Evolution (Alt-PANCE) that alternates mutagenic and selective phage growths. The evolved pathway provides 32-fold improved yield of Pyl-containing reporter protein compared to the rationally engineered ancestor. Evolved PylB mutants are present at up to 4.5-fold elevated levels inside cells, and show up to 2.2-fold increased protease resistance. This study demonstrates that Alt-PANCE provides a general approach for evolving proteins exhibiting toxic side effects, and further provides an improved pathway capable of producing substantially greater quantities of Pyl-proteins inE. coli.

  2. Abstract Ligand-inducible genetic systems are the mainstay of synthetic biology, allowing gene expression to be controlled by the presence of a small molecule. However, ‘leaky’ gene expression in the absence of inducer remains a persistent problem. We developed a leak dampener tool that drastically reduces the leak of inducible genetic systems while retaining signal in Escherichia coli. Our system relies on a coherent feedforward loop featuring a suppressor tRNA that enables conditional readthrough of silent non-sense mutations in a regulated gene, and this approach can be applied to any ligand-inducible transcription factor. We demonstrate proof-of-principle of our system with the lactate biosensor LldR and the arabinose biosensor AraC, which displayed a 70-fold and 630-fold change in output after induction of a fluorescence reporter, respectively, without any background subtraction. Application of the tool to an arabinose-inducible mutagenesis plasmid led to a 540-fold change in its output after induction, with leak decreasing to the level of background mutagenesis. This study provides a modular tool for reducing leak and improving the fold-induction within genetic circuits, demonstrated here using two types of biosensors relevant to cancer detection and genetic engineering.