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Creators/Authors contains: "Miller, Jeffrey T."

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  5. Synchrotron spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) are combined to develop a new descriptor for the stability of adsorbed chemical intermediates on metal alloy surfaces. This descriptor probes the separation of occupied and unoccupied d electron density in platinum and is related to shifts in Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) signals. Simulated and experimental spectroscopy are directly compared to show that the promoter metal identity controls the orbital shifts in platinum electronic structure. The associated RIXS features are correlated with the differences in the band centers of the occupied and unoccupied d bands, providing chemical intuition for the alloy ligand effect and providing a connection to traditional descriptions of chemisorption. The ready accessibility of this descriptor to both DFT calculations and experimental spectroscopy, and its connection to chemisorption, allow for deeper connections between theory and characterization in the discovery of new catalysts. 
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  6. Strong metal–support interaction catalysts have been shown to improve desired product selectivity at the cost of fractional rates due to active site coverage. The goal of this study was to determine if the active site coverage of metallic nanoparticles could be controlled to lower levels than have been previously reported in SMSI catalysts with the aim of improving the rate while maintaining high selectivity. 2Pd– X Ti/SiO 2 (2 wt% Pd, X wt% Ti) strong metal–support interaction (SMSI) catalysts with Ti loadings between 0–1.0 wt% were synthesized to control Pd nanoparticle coverage. Calcination at 450 °C and reduction at 550 °C were sufficient for forming ∼2 nm sized Pd particles in all catalysts. Increasing the Ti loading from 0.1 to 1.0 wt% increased the surface coverage from 40 to 85% at a fixed reduction temperature of 550 °C. The IR spectra of the SMSI catalysts were similar with a high fraction of linear bonded CO which was much higher than that of Pd nanoparticles of similar size. The SMSI overlayer could be removed by oxidation at 350 °C and re-reduction at 200 °C. EXAFS of the oxidized catalysts indicates that nearly full oxidation of the metallic nanoparticle was required to remove the SMSI overlayer. Oxidation temperatures from 30 to 300 °C partially oxidized the Pd nanoparticles and subsequent re-reduction at 200 °C partially decreases the SMSI coverage. The fractional surface coverage was determined by measuring the rate of propylene hydrogenation with and without the SMSI overlayer. Increasing the reduction temperature from 200 to 550 °C increased the SMSI coverage from 0 to 85% depending on the Ti loading and temperature. After reduction at 550 °C and oxidation at 350 °C, the range of coverages varied between ∼10% with 0.1 wt% Ti after re-reduction at 300 °C and ∼85% with 1 wt% Ti after reduction at 550 °C. 
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