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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Abstract The ability to sense and respond to physical forces is critical for the proper function of cells, tissues, and organisms across the evolutionary tree. Plants sense gravity, osmotic conditions, pathogen invasion, wind, and the presence of barriers in the soil, and dynamically integrate internal and external stimuli during every stage of growth and development. While the field of plant mechanobiology is growing, much is still poorly understood—including the interplay between mechanical and biochemical information at the single-cell level. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanical properties of three main components of the plant cell and the mechanoperceptive pathways that link them, with an emphasis on areas of complexity and interaction. We discuss the concept of mechanical homeostasis, or “mechanostasis,” and examine the ways in which cellular structures and pathways serve to maintain it. We argue that viewing mechanics and mechanotransduction as emergent properties of the plant cell can be a useful conceptual framework for synthesizing current knowledge and driving future research.
  3. Abstract

    Cells employ multiple systems to maintain cellular integrity, including mechanosensitive ion channels and the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Here, we use pollen as a model system to ask how these different mechanisms are interconnected at the cellular level. MscS-Like 8 (MSL8) is a mechanosensitive channel required to protect Arabidopsis thaliana pollen from osmotic challenges during in vitro rehydration, germination, and tube growth. New CRISPR/Cas9 and artificial miRNA-generated msl8 alleles produced unexpected pollen phenotypes, including the ability to germinate a tube after bursting, dramatic defects in cell wall structure, and disorganized callose deposition at the germination site. We document complex genetic interactions between MSL8 and two previously established components of the CWI pathway, MARIS and ANXUR1/2. Overexpression of MARISR240C-FP suppressed the bursting, germination, and callose deposition phenotypes of msl8 mutant pollen. Null msl8 alleles suppressed the internalized callose structures observed in MARISR240C-FP lines. Similarly, MSL8-YFP overexpression suppressed bursting in the anxur1/2 mutant background, while anxur1/2 alleles reduced the strong rings of callose around ungerminated pollen grains in MSL8-YFP overexpressors. These data show that mechanosensitive ion channels modulate callose deposition in pollen and provide evidence that cell wall and membrane surveillance systems coordinate in a complex manner to maintain cellmore »integrity.

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  4. Melzer, Rainer (Ed.)
    Abstract Duckweeds are a monophyletic group of rapidly reproducing aquatic monocots in the Lemnaceae family. Given their clonal, exponentially fast reproduction, a key question is whether genome structure is conserved across the species in the absence of meiotic recombination. Here, we studied the genome and proteome of Spirodela polyrhiza, or greater duckweed, which has the largest body plan yet the smallest genome size in the family (1C=150 Mb). Using Oxford Nanopore sequencing combined with Hi-C scaffolding, we generated a highly contiguous, chromosome-scale assembly of S. polyrhiza line Sp7498 (Sp7498_HiC). Both the Sp7498_HiC and Sp9509 genome assemblies reveal large chromosomal misorientations relative to a recent PacBio assembly of Sp7498, highlighting the need for orthogonal long-range scaffolding techniques such as Hi-C and BioNano optical mapping. Shotgun proteomics of Sp7498 verified the expression of ~2250 proteins and revealed a high abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism among other functions. In addition, a strong increase in chloroplast proteins was observed that correlated to chloroplast density. This Sp7498_HiC genome was generated cheaply and quickly with a single Oxford Nanopore MinION flow cell and one Hi-C library in a classroom setting. Combining these data with a mass spectrometry-generated proteome illustrates the utility ofmore »duckweed as a model for genomics- and proteomics-based education.« less