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  1. Abstract The longitudinal coherence of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) in the self-amplified spontaneous emission regime could be substantially improved if the high brightness electron beam could be pre-bunched on the radiated wavelength-scale. Here, we show that it is indeed possible to realize such current modulated electron beam at angstrom scale by exciting a nonlinear wake across a periodically modulated plasma-density downramp/plasma cathode. The density modulation turns on and off the injection of electrons in the wake while downramp provides a unique longitudinal mapping between the electrons’ initial injection positions and their final trapped positions inside the wake. The combined use of a downramp and periodic modulation of micrometers is shown to be able to produces a train of high peak current (17 kA) electron bunches with a modulation wavelength of 10’s of angstroms - orders of magnitude shorter than the plasma density modulation. The peak brightness of the nano-bunched beam can be O (10 21 A/m 2 /rad 2 ) orders of magnitude higher than current XFEL beams. Such prebunched, high brightness electron beams hold the promise for compact and lower cost XEFLs that can produce nanometer radiation with hundreds of GW power in a 10 s of centimeter longmore »undulator.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract This paper analyses images from 43 to 340 GHz to trace the structure of the Source I (SrcI) disk in Orion-KL with ∼12 au resolution. The data reveal an almost edge-on disk with an outside diameter ∼100 au, which is heated from the inside. The high opacity at 220–340 GHz hides the internal structure and presents a surface temperature ∼500 K. Images at 43, 86 and 99 GHz reveal structure within the disk. At 43 GHz there is bright compact emission with brightness temperature ∼1300 K. Another feature, most prominent at 99 GHz, is a warped ridge of emission. The data can be explained by a simple model with a hot inner structure, seen through cooler material. A wide-angle outflow mapped in SiO emission ablates material from the interior of the disk, and extends in a bipolar outflow over 1000 au along the rotation axis of the disk. SiO v = 0, J = 5–4 emission appears to have a localized footprint in the warped ridge. These observations suggest that the ridge is the working surface of the disk, and heated by accretion and the outflow. The disk structure may be evolving, with multiple accretion and outflow events. Wemore »discuss two sources of variability: (1) variable accretion onto the disk as SrcI travels through the filamentary debris from the Becklin–Neugebauer Object-SrcI encounter ∼550 yr ago; and (2) episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which may trigger multiple outflows. The warped inner-disk structure is direct evidence that SrcI could be a binary experiencing episodic accretion.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2023