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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  2. The sensitivity of sea ice to fire emissions highlights climate model uncertainty related to the accuracy of prescribed forcings.
  3. Abstract

    Single-forcing large ensembles are a relatively new tool for quantifying the contributions of different anthropogenic and natural forcings to the historical and future projected evolution of the climate system. This study introduces a new single-forcing large ensemble with the Community Earth System Model, version 2 (CESM2), which can be used to separate the influences of greenhouse gases, anthropogenic aerosols, biomass burning aerosols, and all remaining forcings on the evolution of the Earth system from 1850 to 2050. Here, the forced responses of global near-surface temperature and associated drivers are examined in CESM2 and compared with those in a single-forcing large ensemble with CESM2’s predecessor, CESM1. The experimental design, the imposed forcing, and the model physics all differ between the CESM1 and CESM2 ensembles. In CESM1, an “all-but-one” approach was used whereby everything except the forcing of interest is time evolving, while in CESM2 an “only” approach is used, whereby only the forcing of interest is time evolving. This experimental design choice is shown to matter considerably for anthropogenic aerosol-forced change in CESM2, due to state dependence of cryospheric albedo feedbacks and nonlinearity in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) response to forcing. This impact of experimental design is, however,more »strongly dependent on the model physics and/or the imposed forcing, as the same sensitivity to experimental design is not found in CESM1, which appears to be an inherently less nonlinear model in both its AMOC behavior and cryospheric feedbacks.

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  4. Abstract

    Even though the fundamental rules governing dislocation activities have been well established in the past century, we report a phenomenon, dislocation transformation, governed by the generalized-stacking-fault energy surface mismatch (GSF mismatch for short) between two co-existing phases. By carrying out ab-initio-informed microscopic phase-field simulations, we demonstrate that the GSF mismatch between a high symmetry matrix phase and a low symmetry precipitate phase can transform an array of identical full dislocations in the matrix into an array of two different types of full dislocations when they shear through the precipitates. The precipitates serve as a passive Shockley partial source, creating new Shockley partial dislocations that are neither the ones from the dissociation of the full dislocation. This phenomenon enriches our fundamental understanding of partial dislocation nucleation and dislocation-precipitate interactions, offering additional opportunities to tailor work-hardening and twinning processes in alloys strengthened by low-symmetry precipitate phases.

  5. Cylindrical specimens of CrCoNi alloy with electropolished surfaces were subjected to constant total strain amplitude low cycle fatigue. The alloy exhibited an initial period of cyclic hardening followed by cyclic softening until failure occurred. At the end of hardening stage at the peak of cyclic stress, well-developed persistent slip markings (PSMs) consisting of extrusions and intrusions were associated with thin deformation twins. A sophisticated experimental workflow was designed to extract information from the surface and the bulk of tested material. A combination of SEM, EBSD, ECCI, FIB and HR-STEM was used to study the internal structure and the surface profiles around the deformation twins, which were produced during the initial period of cyclic loading. Furthermore, localized cyclic plastic strain and stress concentrations near deformation twins led not only to early, well-developed PSMs, but also to the activation of TWIP and TRIP plasticity even at low macroscopic stress amplitudes.
  6. Abstract

    Almost 75 years of research has been devoted to producing superalloys capable of higher operating temperatures in jet turbine engines, and there is an ongoing need to increase operating temperature further. Here, a new disk Nickel-base superalloy is designed to take advantage of strengthening atomic-scale dynamic complexions. This local phase transformation strengthening provides the alloy with a three times improvement in creep strength over similar disk superalloys and comparable strength to a single crystal blade alloy at 760 °C. Ultra-high-resolution chemical mapping reveals that the improvement in creep strength is a result of atomic-scale η (D024) and χ (D019) formation along superlattice stacking faults. To understand these results, the energy differences between the L12and competing D024and D019stacking fault structures and their dependence on composition are computed by density functional theory. This study can help guide researchers to further optimize local phase transformation strengthening mechanisms for alloy development.