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  5. Electrochemical dehalogenation of polyhalogenated compounds is an inefficient process as the working electrode is passivated by the deposition of short-chain polymers that form during the early stages of electrolysis. Herein, we report the use of 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3-hexaflouroisopropanol (HFIP) as an efficient reagent to control C–H formation over the radical association. Debromination of 1,6-dibromohexane was examined in the presence of Ni(II) salen and HFIP as the electrocatalyst and hydrogen atom source, respectively. Electrolysis of 10 mM 1,6-dibromohexane and 2 mM Ni(II) salen in the absence of HFIP yields 50% unreacted 1,6-dibromohexane and ∼40% unaccounted for starting material, whereas electrolysis with 50 mM HFIP affords 65%n-hexane. The mechanism of hydrogen atom incorporation was examined via deuterium incorporation coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Deuterium incorporation analysis revealed that the hydrogen atom originated from the secondary carbon of HFIP. DFT calculations showed that the deprotonation of hydroxyl moiety of HFIP, prior to the hydrogen atom transfer, is a key step for C–H formation. The scope of electrochemical dehalogenation was examined by electrolysis of 10 halogenated compounds. Our results indicate that through the use of HFIP, the formation of short-chain polymers is no longer observed, and monomer formation is the dominant product.

     
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  6. Poor electrochemical communication between biocatalysts and electrodes is a ubiquitous limitation to bioelectrocatalysis efficiency. An extensive library of polymers has been developed to modify biocatalyst-electrode interfaces to alleviate this limitation. As such, conducting redox polymers (CRPs) are a versatile tool with high structural and functional tunability. While charge transport in CRPs is well characterized, the understanding of charge transport mechanisms facilitated by CRPs within decisively complex photobioelectrocatalytic systems remains very limited. This study is a comprehensive analysis that dissects the complex kinetics of photobioelectrodes into fundamental blocks based on rational assumptions, providing a mechanistic overview of charge transfer during photobioelectrocatalysis. We quantitatively compare two biohybrids of metal-free unbranched CRP (polydihydroxy aniline) and photobiocatalyst (intact chloroplasts), formed utilizing two deposition strategies ( “mixed” and “layered” depositions). The superior photobioelectrocatalytic performance of the “ layered” biohybrid compared to the “ mixed” counterpart is justified in terms of rate ( D app ), thermodynamic and kinetic barriers (H ≠ , E a ), frequency of molecular collisions ( D 0 ) during electron transport across depositions, and rate and resistance to heterogeneous electron transfer ( k 0 , R CT ). Our results indicate that the primary electron transfer mechanism across the biohybrids, constituting the unbranched CRP, is thermally activated intra- and inter-molecular electron hopping, as opposed to a non-thermally activated polaron transfer model typical for branched CRP- or conducting polymer (CP)-containing biohybrids in literature. This work underscores the significance of subtle interplay between CRP structure and deposition strategy in tuning the polymer-catalyst interfaces, and the branched/unbranched structural classification of CRPs in the bioelectrocatalysis context. 
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