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  1. Abstract We report on a long-lasting, elevated gamma-ray flux state from VER J0521+211 observed by VERITAS, MAGIC, and Fermi-LAT in 2013 and 2014. The peak integral flux above 200 GeV measured with the nightly binned light curve is (8.8 ± 0.4) × 10 −7 photons m −2 s −1 , or ∼37% of the Crab Nebula flux. Multiwavelength observations from X-ray, UV, and optical instruments are also presented. A moderate correlation between the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray fluxes was observed, and the X-ray spectrum appeared harder when the flux was higher. Using the gamma-ray spectrum and four models of the extragalactic background light (EBL), a conservative 95% confidence upper limit on the redshift of the source was found to be z ≤ 0.31. Unlike the gamma-ray and X-ray bands, the optical flux did not increase significantly during the studied period compared to the archival low-state flux. The spectral variability from optical to X-ray bands suggests that the synchrotron peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) may become broader during flaring states, which can be adequately described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model varying the high-energy end of the underlying particle spectrum. The synchrotron peak frequency of the SED and themore »radio morphology of the jet from the MOJAVE program are consistent with the source being an intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force, describes interactions of coloured quarks and gluons and the formation of hadronic matter. Conventional hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and quark-antiquark pairs, respectively. Particles with an alternative quark content are known as exotic states. Here a study is reported of an exotic narrow state in the D 0 D 0 π + mass spectrum just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold produced in proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The state is consistent with the ground isoscalar $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + tetraquark with a quark content of $${{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{u}}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{d}}}}}}}$$ c c u ¯ d ¯ and spin-parity quantum numbers J P  = 1 + . Study of the DD mass spectra disfavours interpretation of the resonance as the isovector state. The decay structure via intermediate off-shell D *+ mesons is consistent with the observed D 0 π + mass distribution. To analyse the mass of the resonance and its coupling to the D * D system, a dedicated model is developed under the assumption of an isoscalar axial-vector $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state decaying to the Dmore »* D channel. Using this model, resonance parameters including the pole position, scattering length, effective range and compositeness are determined to reveal important information about the nature of the $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state. In addition, an unexpected dependence of the production rate on track multiplicity is observed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Conventional, hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and a quark–antiquark pair, respectively 1,2 . Here, we report the observation of a hadronic state containing four quarks in the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment. This so-called tetraquark contains two charm quarks, a $$\overline{{{{{u}}}}}$$ u ¯ and a $$\overline{{{{{d}}}}}$$ d ¯ quark. This exotic state has a mass of approximately 3,875 MeV and manifests as a narrow peak in the mass spectrum of D 0 D 0 π + mesons just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold. The near-threshold mass together with the narrow width reveals the resonance nature of the state.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  4. A bstract A precision measurement of the Z boson production cross-section at $$ \sqrt{\mathrm{s}} $$ s = 13 TeV in the forward region is presented, using pp collision data collected by the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 fb − 1 . The production cross-section is measured using Z → μ + μ − events within the fiducial region defined as pseudorapidity 2 . 0 < η < 4 . 5 and transverse momentum p T > 20 GeV /c for both muons and dimuon invariant mass 60 < M μμ < 120 GeV /c 2 . The integrated cross-section is determined to be $$ \sigma \left(Z\to {\mu}^{+}{\mu}^{-}\right)=196.4\pm 0.2\pm 1.6\pm 3.9\ \mathrm{pb}, $$ σ Z → μ + μ − = 196.4 ± 0.2 ± 1.6 ± 3.9 pb , where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the luminosity determination. The measured results are in agreement with theoretical predictions within uncertainties.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  5. A bstract Coherent production of J/ψ mesons is studied in ultraperipheral lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5 TeV, using a data sample collected by the LHCb experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 10 μb −1 . The J/ψ mesons are reconstructed in the dimuon final state and are required to have transverse momentum below 1 GeV. The cross-section within the rapidity range of 2 . 0 < y < 4 . 5 is measured to be 4 . 45 ± 0 . 24 ± 0 . 18 ± 0 . 58 mb, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third originates from the luminosity determination. The cross-section is also measured in J/ψ rapidity intervals. The results are compared to predictions from phenomenological models.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  10. A bstract The $$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}{\pi}^{+} $$ Ξ cc + + → Ξ c ′ + π + decay is observed using proton-proton collisions collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 . 4 fb − 1. The $$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}{\pi}^{+} $$ Ξ cc + + → Ξ c ′ + π + decay is reconstructed partially, where the photon from the $$ {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}\to {\varXi}_c^{+}\gamma $$ Ξ c ′ + → Ξ c + γ decay is not reconstructed and the pK − π + final state of the $$ {\varXi}_c^{+} $$ Ξ c + baryon is employed. The $$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{\prime +}{\pi}^{+} $$ Ξ cc + + → Ξ c ′ + π + branching fraction relative to that of the $$ {\varXi}_{cc}^{++}\to {\varXi}_c^{+}{\pi}^{+} $$ Ξ cc + + → Ξ c + π + decay is measured to be 1 . 41 ± 0 . 17 ± 0 . 10, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023