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Creators/Authors contains: "Mirica, Liviu M."

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  1. Herein we report the direct observation of C–H bond activation at an isolated mononuclear Pd( iii ) center. The oxidation of the Pd( ii ) complex ( Me N4)Pd II (neophyl)Cl (neophyl = –CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 Ph; Me N4 = N , N ′-dimethyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane) using the mild oxidant ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate (FcPF 6 ) yields the stable Pd( iii ) complex [( Me N4)Pd III (neophyl)Cl]PF 6 . Upon the addition of an acetate source, [( Me N4)Pd III (neophyl)Cl]PF 6 undergoes Csp 2 –H bond activation to yield the cyclometalated product [( Me N4)Pd III (cycloneophyl)]PF 6 . This metalacycle can be independently prepared, allowing for a complete characterization of both the starting and final Pd( iii ) complexes. The C–H activation step can be monitored directly by EPR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, and kinetic isotope effect (KIE) studies suggest that either a pre-association step such as an agostic interaction may be rate limiting, or that the C–H activation is partially rate-limiting in conjunction with ligand rearrangement. Density functional theory calculations support that the reaction proceeds through a κ 3 ligand coordination and that the flexible ligand structure is important for this transformation. Overall, this study represents the first example of discrete C–H bond activation occurring at a Pd( iii ) center through a concerted metalation–deprotonation mechanism, akin to that observed for Pd( ii ) and Pd( iv ) centers. 
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  2. Abstract

    Significant progress has been made in the bioinorganic modeling of the paramagnetic states believed to be involved in the hydrogen redox chemistry catalyzed by [NiFe] hydrogenase. However, the characterization and isolation of intermediates involved in mononuclear Ni electrocatalysts which are reported to operate through a NiI/IIIcycle have largely remained elusive. Herein, we report a NiIIcomplex (NCHS2)Ni(OTf)2, where NCHS2 is 3,7-dithia-1(2,6)-pyridina-5(1,3)-benzenacyclooctaphane, that is an efficient electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with turnover frequencies of ~3,000 s−1and a overpotential of 670 mV in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid. This electrocatalyst follows a hitherto unobserved HER mechanism involving C-H activation, which manifests as an inverse kinetic isotope effect for the overall hydrogen evolution reaction, and NiI/NiIIIintermediates, which have been characterized by EPR spectroscopy. We further validate the possibility of the involvement of NiIIIintermediates by the independent synthesis and characterization of organometallic NiIIIcomplexes.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Herein, we report four new chiral 1,4,7‐triazacyclononane (TACN) derivatives and their corresponding nickel(II) chloride complexes. All TACN ligands are bearing one chiral N‐substituent and two alkyl (methyl ortert‐butyl) N‐substituents, and we have developed a new synthetic method for the dimethyl‐substituted TACN derivative, in order to prevent the rotational isomers that hinder the cyclization reaction. The nickel complexes change their coordination geometry significantly depending on the steric bulk of the N‐alkyl substituents, from a dinuclear tris(μ‐chloro)dinickel complex to mononuclear Ni‐dichloride and Ni‐chloride complexes. These complexes were then employed in the alkyl‐alkyl Kumada cross‐coupling reaction and revealed that the more sterically hindered ligands produced more homocoupled product rather than the cross‐coupled product, while the mononuclear Ni‐dichloride complex exhibited significantly lower catalytic activity. These chiral complexes were also employed in enantioconvergent cross‐coupling reactions as well, to afford significant enantioenrichment. Overall, the least sterically hindered Ni complex yields the best yields in the alkyl‐alkyl Kumada cross‐coupling reaction among the four complexes investigated, as well as the highest enantioselectivity.

     
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  4. Nickel K- and L 2,3 -edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) are discussed for 16 complexes and complex ions with nickel centers spanning a range of formal oxidation states from II to IV. K-edge XAS alone is shown to be an ambiguous metric of physical oxidation state for these Ni complexes. Meanwhile, L 2,3 -edge XAS reveals that the physical d-counts of the formally Ni IV compounds measured lie well above the d 6 count implied by the oxidation state formalism. The generality of this phenomenon is explored computationally by scrutinizing 8 additional complexes. The extreme case of NiF 6 2− is considered using high-level molecular orbital approaches as well as advanced valence bond methods. The emergent electronic structure picture reveals that even highly electronegative F-donors are incapable of supporting a physical d 6 Ni IV center. The reactivity of Ni IV complexes is then discussed, highlighting the dominant role of the ligands in this chemistry over that of the metal centers. 
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  5. An isolated Ni( ii )-nitrosyl complex supported by the bulky tridentate 1,4,7-triisopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (iPr 3 TACN) ligand was obtained from the reaction of a Ni( ii ) dimethyl complex with NOPF 6 , suggesting the in situ formation of a Ni( i ) species that reacts with the resulting NO product. Use of a π-acceptor ancillary isocyanide ligand led to the isolation and characterization of an uncommon 5-coordinate Ni( i ) complex supported by the iPr 3 TACN ligand and tert -butylisocyanide. 
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  6. Abstract

    Photoredox nickel catalysis has emerged as a powerful strategy for cross-coupling reactions. Although the involvement of paramagnetic Ni(I)/Ni(III) species as active intermediates in the catalytic cycle has been proposed, a thorough spectroscopic investigation of these species is lacking. Herein, we report the tridentate pyridinophane ligandsRN3 that allow for detailed mechanistic studies of the photocatalytic C–O coupling reaction. The derived (RN3)Ni complexes are active catalysts under mild conditions and without an additional photocatalyst. We also provide direct evidence for the key steps involving paramagnetic Ni species in the proposed catalytic cycle: the oxidative addition of an aryl halide to a Ni(I) species, the ligand exchange/transmetalation at a Ni(III) center, and the C–O reductive elimination from a Ni(III) species. Overall, the present work suggests theRN3 ligands are a practical platform for mechanistic studies of Ni-catalyzed reactions and for the development of new catalytic applications.

     
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  7. A bioinspired (N2S2)Ni( ii ) electrocatalyst is reported that produces H 2 from CF 3 CO 2 H with a turnover frequency (TOF) of ∼1250 s −1 at low acid concentration (<0.043 M) in MeCN. A mechanism for the H 2 production by this electrocatalyst is proposed and its activity is benchmarked against those of other reported molecular Ni H 2 evolution electrocatalysts. The involvement of a hemilabile pyridyl group of the N2S2 ligand is proposed to mimic the role of a cysteine residue involved in the biological proton reduction performed by [NiFe] hydrogenases. 
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