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  1. Selective autophagy is a conserved subcellular process that maintains the health of eukaryotic cells by targeting damaged or toxic cytoplasmic components to the vacuole/lysosome for degradation. A key player in the initiation of selective autophagy in S. Cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) is a large adapter protein called Atg11. Atg11 has multiple predicted coiled-coil domains and intrinsically disordered regions, is known to dimerize, and binds and organizes other essential components of the autophagosome formation machinery, including Atg1 and Atg9. We performed systematic directed mutagenesis on the coiled-coil 2 domain of Atg11 in order to map which residues were required for its structure and function. Using yeast-2-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation, we found only three residues to be critical: I562, Y565, and I569. Mutation of any of these, but especially Y565, could interfere with Atg11 dimerization and block its interaction with Atg1 and Atg9, thereby inactivating selective autophagy.
  2. In this paper, we introduce two new methods of mitigating decoder error propagation for low-latency sliding window decoding (SWD) of spatially coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) codes. Building on the recently introduced idea of check node (CN) doping of regular SC-LDPC codes, here we employ variable node (VN) doping to fix (set to a known value) a subset of variable nodes in the coupling chain. Both of these doping methods have the effect of allowing SWD to recover from error propagation, at a cost of a slight rate loss. Experimental results show that, similar to CN doping, VN doping improves performance by up to two orders of magnitude compared to un-doped SC-LDPC codes in the typical signal-to-noise ratio operating range. Further, compared to CN doping, VN doping has the advantage of not requiring any changes to the decoding process. In addition, a log-likelihood-ratio based window extension algorithm is proposed to reduce the effect of error propagation. Using this approach, we show that decoding latency can be reduced by up to a significant fraction without suffering any loss in performance.
  3. Abstract In this paper we examine a low-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed by IS⊙IS’s Energetic Particle Instrument-Low (EPI-Lo) inside 0.18 au on 2020 September 30. This small SEP event has a very interesting time profile and ion composition. Our results show that the maximum energy and peak in intensity are observed mainly along the open radial magnetic field. The event shows velocity dispersion, and strong particle anisotropies are observed throughout the event, showing that more particles are streaming outward from the Sun. We do not see a shock in the in situ plasma or magnetic field data throughout the event. Heavy ions, such as O and Fe, were detected in addition to protons and 4He, but without significant enhancements in 3He or energetic electrons. Our analysis shows that this event is associated with a slow streamer blowout coronal mass ejection (SBO-CME), and the signatures of this small CME event are consistent with those typical of larger CME events. The time–intensity profile of this event shows that the Parker Solar Probe encountered the western flank of the SBO-CME. The anisotropic and dispersive nature of this event in a shockless local plasma gives indications that these particles are most likelymore »accelerated remotely near the Sun by a weak shock or compression wave ahead of the SBO-CME. This event may represent direct observations of the source of the low-energy SEP seed particle population.« less
  4. In this paper, we introduce two new methods of mitigating decoder error propagation for low-latency sliding window decoding (SWD) of spatially coupled low density parity check (SC-LDPC) codes. Building on the recently introduced idea of check node (CN) doping of regular SC-LDPC codes, here we employ variable node (VN) doping to fix (set to a known value) a subset of variable nodes in the coupling chain. Both of these doping methods have the effect of allowing SWD to recover from error propagation, at a cost of a slight rate loss. Experimental results show that, similar to CN doping, VN doping improves performance by up to two orders of magnitude compared to undoped SC-LDPC codes in the typical signal-to-noise ratio operating range. Further, compared to CN doping, VN doping has the advantage of not requiring any changes to the decoding process.In addition, a log-likelihood-ratio based window extension algorithm is proposed to reduce the effect of error propagation. Using this approach, we show that decoding latency can be reduced by up to a significant fraction without suffering any loss in performance
  5. Abstract We present observations of ≳10–100 keV nucleon −1 suprathermal (ST) H, He, O, and Fe ions associated with crossings of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) at radial distances of <0.1 au from the Sun. Our key findings are as follows: (1) very few heavy ions are detected during the first full crossing, the heavy-ion intensities are reduced during the second partial crossing and peak just after the second crossing; (2) ion arrival times exhibit no velocity dispersion; (3) He pitch-angle distributions track the magnetic field polarity reversal and show up to ∼10:1 anti-sunward, field-aligned flows and beams closer to the HCS that become nearly isotropic farther from the HCS; (4) the He spectrum steepens either side of the HCS, and the He, O, and Fe spectra exhibit power laws of the form ∼ E −4 – E 6 ; and (5) maximum energies E X increase with the ion’s charge-to-mass ( Q / M ) ratio as E X / E H ∝ ( Q X / M X ) δ , where δ ∼ 0.65–0.76, assuming that the average Q states are similar to those measured in gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle events at 1 au. Themore »absence of velocity dispersion in combination with strong field-aligned anisotropies closer to the HCS appears to rule out solar flares and near-Sun coronal-mass-ejection-driven shocks. These new observations present challenges not only for mechanisms that employ direct parallel electric fields and organize maximum energies according to E / Q but also for local diffusive and magnetic-reconnection-driven acceleration models. Reevaluation of our current understanding of the production and transport of energetic ions is necessary to understand this near-solar, current-sheet-associated population of ST ions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023