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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  2. Membrane processes are widely used in industrial applications such water purification, food processing and pharmaceutical manufacturing. During their operation, the accumulation of foulants in membrane pores and on membrane surfaces lead to the reduction in flux, membrane lifetime and increase in operational cost, and the understanding of the fouling phenomenon is important for mitigating these problems. In this paper we report the application of Raman chemical imaging as a means of identify and map foulants on a membrane surface. The surface of a Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was studied by Raman chemical imaging before and after fouling during desalination via membranemore »distillation. Information about location and concentration of three different salts namely CaSO4, BaSO4 and CaCO3 was studied. The three salts showed different distribution patterns, and their distribution was analyzed by correlation mapping and multivariate curve resolution. It was observed that CaSO4 agglomerated in specific places while the BaSO4 and CaCO3 were more distributed. Raman imaging appears to be a powerful tool for studying membrane foulants and can be effective in identifying the distribution of different species on a membrane surface.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
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  6. Abstract We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results finds nomore »evidence for subthreshold gravitational-wave signals associated with this GRB ensemble either. We use several source types and signal morphologies during the searches, resulting in lower bounds on the estimated distance to each GRB. Finally, we constrain the population of low-luminosity short GRBs using results from the first to the third observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. The resulting population is in accordance with the local binary neutron star merger rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023