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  1. Cerbino, Roberto (Ed.)

    This research addresses the growing menace of antibiotic resistance by exploring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as alternatives to conventional antibiotics.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 22, 2025
  2. Lu, Hua (Ed.)
    SPLUNC1 (short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1) is a multifunctional host defense protein found in human respiratory tract with antimicrobial properties. In this work we compare the biological activities of four SPLUNC1 antimicrobial peptide (AMP) derivatives using paired clinical isolates of the Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, obtained from eleven patients with/without colistin resistance. Secondary structural studies were carried out to study interactions between the AMPs and lipid model membranes (LMMs) utilizing circular dichroism (CD). Two peptides were further characterized using x-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and neutron reflectivity (NR). A4-153 displayed superior antibacterial activity in both G(-) planktonic cultures and biofilms. NR and XDS revealed that A4-153 (highest activity) is located primarily in membrane headgroups, while A4-198 (lowest activity) is located in hydrophobic region. CD revealed that A4-153 is helical while A4-198 has little helical character, demonstrating that helicity and efficacy are correlated in these SPLUNC1 AMPs. 
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  3. Antibiotics are losing effectiveness as bacteria become resistant to conventional drugs. To find new alternatives, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are rationally designed with different lengths, charges, hydrophobicities (H), and hydrophobic moments (μH), containing only three types of amino acids: arginine, tryptophan, and valine. Six AMPs with low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and <25% toxicity to mammalian cells are selected for biophysical studies. Their secondary structures are determined using circular dichroism (CD), which finds that the % α‐helicity of AMPs depends on composition of the lipid model membranes (LMMs): gram‐negative (G(−)) inner membrane (IM) >gram‐positive (G(+))> Euk33 (eukaryotic with 33 mol% cholesterol). The two most effective peptides, E2‐35 (16 amino acid [AA] residues) and E2‐05 (22 AAs), are predominantly helical in G(–) IM and G(+) LMMs. AMP/membrane interactions such as membrane elasticity, chain order parameter, and location of the peptides in the membrane are investigated by low‐angle and wide‐angle X‐ray diffuse scattering (XDS). It is found that headgroup location correlates with efficacy and toxicity. The membrane bending modulusKCdisplays nonmonotonic changes due to increasing concentrations of E2‐35 and E2‐05 in G(–) and G(+) LMMs, suggesting a bacterial killing mechanism where domain formation causes ion and water leakage.

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