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Creators/Authors contains: "Mock, Karen E."

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  1. Abstract

    Mapping geographic mosaics of genetic variation and their consequences via genotype x environment interactions at large extents and high resolution has been limited by the scalability of DNA sequencing. Here, we address this challenge for cytotype (chromosome copy number) variation in quaking aspen, a drought‐impacted foundation tree species. We integrate airborne imaging spectroscopy data with ground‐based DNA sequencing data and canopy damage data in 391 km2of southwestern Colorado. We show that (1) aspen cover and cytotype can be remotely sensed at 1 m spatial resolution, (2) the geographic mosaic of cytotypes is heterogeneous and interdigitated, (3) triploids have higher leaf nitrogen, canopy water content, and carbon isotope shifts (δ13C) than diploids, and (4) canopy damage varies among cytotypes and depends on interactions with topography, canopy height, and trait variables. Triploids are at higher risk in hotter and drier conditions.

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  2. Abstract

    Species responses to climate change depend on environment, genetics, and interactions among these factors. Intraspecific cytotype (ploidy level) variation is a common type of genetic variation in many species. However, the importance of intraspecific cytotype variation in determining demography across environments is poorly known. We studied quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), which occurs in diploid and triploid cytotypes. This widespread tree species is experiencing contractions in its western range, which could potentially be linked to cytotype‐dependent drought tolerance. We found that interactions between cytotype and environment drive mortality and recruitment across 503 plots in Colorado. Triploids were more vulnerable to mortality relative to diploids and had reduced recruitment on more drought‐prone and disturbed plots relative to diploids. Furthermore, there was substantial genotype‐dependent variation in demography. Thus, cytotype and genotype variation are associated with decline in this foundation species. Future assessment of demographic responses to climate change will benefit from knowledge of how genetic and environmental mosaics interact to determine species’ ecophysiology and demography.

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  3. Abstract

    Populus tremuloidesis the widest‐ranging tree species in North America and an ecologically important component of mesic forest ecosystems displaced by the Pleistocene glaciations. Using phylogeographic analyses of genome‐wide SNPs (34,796 SNPs, 183 individuals) and ecological niche modeling, we inferred population structure, ploidy levels, admixture, and Pleistocene range dynamics ofP. tremuloides, and tested several historical biogeographical hypotheses. We found three genetic lineages located mainly in coastal–Cascades (cluster 1), east‐slope Cascades–Sierra Nevadas–Northern Rockies (cluster 2), and U.S. Rocky Mountains through southern Canadian (cluster 3) regions of theP. tremuloidesrange, with tree graph relationships of the form ((cluster 1, cluster 2), cluster 3). Populations consisted mainly of diploids (86%) but also small numbers of triploids (12%) and tetraploids (1%), and ploidy did not adversely affect our genetic inferences. The main vector of admixture was from cluster 3 into cluster 2, with the admixture zone trending northwest through the Rocky Mountains along a recognized phenotypic cline (Utah to Idaho). Clusters 1 and 2 provided strong support for the “stable‐edge hypothesis” that unglaciated southwestern populations persisted in situ since the last glaciation. By contrast, despite a lack of clinal genetic variation, cluster 3 exhibited “trailing‐edge” dynamics from niche suitability predictions signifying complete northward postglacial expansion. Results were also consistent with the “inland dispersal hypothesis” predicting postglacial assembly of Pacific Northwestern forest ecosystems, but rejected the hypothesis that Pacific‐coastal populations were colonized during outburst flooding from glacial Lake Missoula. Overall, congruent patterns between our phylogeographic and ecological niche modeling results and fossil pollen data demonstrate complex mixtures of stable‐edge, refugial locations, and postglacial expansion withinP. tremuloides. These findings confirm and refine previous genetic studies, while strongly supporting a distinct Pacific‐coastal genetic lineage of quaking aspen.

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  4. Abstract

    Chromosomal rearrangement can be an important mechanism driving population differentiation and incipient speciation. In the mountain pine beetle (MPB,Dendroctonus ponderosae), deletions on the Y chromosome that are polymorphic among populations are associated with reproductive incompatibility. Here, we usedRADsequencing across the entireMPBrange in western North America to reveal the extent of the phylogeographic differences between Y haplotypes compared to autosomal and X‐linked loci. Clustering and geneflow analyses revealed three distinct Y haplogroups geographically positioned within and on either side of the Great Basin Desert. Despite close geographic proximity between populations on the boundaries of each Y haplogroup, there was extremely low Y haplogroup mixing among populations, and gene flow on the autosomes was reduced across Y haplogroup boundaries. These results are consistent with a previous study suggesting that independent degradation of a recently evolved neo‐Y chromosome in previously isolated populations causes male sterility or inviability among Y haplotype lineages. Phylogeographic results supported historic contraction ofMPBinto three separate Pleistocene glacial refugia followed by postglacial range expansion and secondary contact. Distinct sets ofSNPs were statistically associated with environmental data among the most genetically distinct sets of geographic populations. This finding suggests that the process of adaptation to local climatic conditions is influenced by population genetic structure, with evidence for largely independent evolution in the most genetically isolated Y haplogroup.

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