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  1. Abstract Amplified rates of urban convective systems pose a severe peril to the life and property of the inhabitants over urban regions, requiring a reliable urban weather forecasting system. However, the city scale's accurate rainfall forecast has constantly been a challenge, as they are significantly affected by land use/ land cover changes (LULCC). Therefore, an attempt has been made to improve the forecast of the severe convective event by employing the comprehensive urban LULC map using Local Climate Zone (LCZ) classification from the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT) over the tropical city of Bhubaneswar in the eastern coast of India. These LCZs denote specific land cover classes based on urban morphology characteristics. It can be used in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW) model, which also encapsulates the Building Effect Parameterization (BEP) scheme. The BEP scheme considers the buildings' 3D structure and allows complex land–atmosphere interaction for an urban area. The temple city Bhubaneswar, the capital of eastern state Odisha, possesses significant rapid urbanization during the recent decade. The LCZs are generated at 500 m grids using supervised classification and are ingested into the ARW model. Two different LULC dataset, i.e., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and WUDAPT derived LCZs and initial, and boundary conditions from NCEP GFS 6-h interval are used for two pre-monsoon severe convective events of the year 2016. The results from WUDAPT based LCZ have shown an improvement in spatial variability and reduction in overall BIAS over MODIS LULC experiments. The WUDAPT based LCZ map enhances high-resolution forecast from ARW by incorporating the details of building height, terrain roughness, and urban fraction. 
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  2. Abstract

    We present a numerical investigation of the processes that influenced the contrasting rapid intensity changes in Tropical Cyclones (TC) Phailin and Lehar (2013) over the Bay of Bengal. Our emphasis is on the significant differences in the environments experienced by the TCs within a few weeks and the consequent differences in their organization of vortex-scale convection that resulted in their different rapid intensity changes. The storm-relative proximity, intensity, and depth of the subtropical ridge resulted in the establishment of a low-sheared environment for Phailin and a high-sheared environment for Lehar. Our primary finding here is that in Lehar’s sheared vortex, the juxtaposition in the azimuthal phasing of the asymmetrically distributed downward eddy flux of moist-entropy through the top of the boundary layer, and the radial eddy flux of moist-entropy within the boundary layer in the upshear left-quadrant of Lehar (40–80 km radius) establishes a pathway for the low moist-entropy air to intrude into the vortex from the environment. Conversely, when the azimuthal variations in boundary layer moist-entropy, inflow, and convection are weak in Phailin’s low-sheared environment, the inflow magnitude and radial location of boundary layer convergence relative to the radius of maximum wind dictated the rapid intensification.

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  3. Abstract

    This study investigates the impact of direct versus indirect initialization of soil moisture (SM) and soil temperature (ST) on monsoon depressions (MDs) and heavy rainfall simulations over India. SM/ST products obtained from high‐resolution, land data assimilation system (LDAS) are used in the direct initialization of land surface conditions in the ARW modeling system. In the indirect method, the initial SM is sequentially adjusted through the flux‐adjusting surface data assimilation system (FASDAS). These two approaches are compared with a control experiment (CNTL) involving climatological SM/ST conditions for eight MDs at 4‐km horizontal resolution. The surface fields simulated by the LDAS run showed the highest agreement, followed by FASDAS for relatively dry June cases, but the error is high (~15–30%) for the relatively wet August cases. The moisture budget indicates that moisture convergence and local influence contributed more to rainfall. The surface‐rainfall feedback analysis reveals that surface conditions and evaporation have a dominant impact on the rainfall simulation and these couplings are notable in LDAS runs. The contiguous rain area (CRA) method indicates better performance of LDAS for very heavy rainfall distribution, and the location (ETS > 0.2), compared to FASDAS and CNTL. The pattern error contributes the maximum to the total rainfall error, and the displacement error is more in August cases' rainfall than that in June cases. Overall analyses indicated that the role of land conditions is significantly high in the drier month (June) than a wet month (August), and direct initialization of SM/ST fields yielded improved MD and heavy rain simulations.

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