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  1. Abstract The Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters enhances thephysics reach of the experiment during the upcoming operation atincreasing Large Hadron Collider luminosities.The new system, installed during the second Large Hadron Collider Long Shutdown,increases the trigger readout granularity by up to a factor of tenas well as its precision and range.Consequently, the background rejection at trigger level is improvedthrough enhanced filtering algorithms utilizing the additional informationfor topological discrimination of electromagnetic and hadronic shower shapes.This paper presents the final designs of the new electronic elements,their custom electronic devices, the proceduresused to validate their proper functioning, and the performance achievedduring the commissioning of this system.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Understanding impacts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in air requires a molecular-level understanding of particle growth via interactions between gases and particle surfaces. The interactions of three gaseous organic nitrates with selected organic substrates were measured at 296 K using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The organic substrates included a long chain alkane (triacontane, TC), a keto-acid (pinonic acid, PA), an amorphous ester oligomer (poly(ethylene adipate) di-hydroxy terminated, PEA), and laboratory-generated SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. There was no uptake of the organic nitrates on the non-polar TC substrate, but significant uptake occurred on PEA, PA, and α-pinene SOA. Net uptake coefficients ( γ ) at the shortest reaction times accessible in these experiments ranged from 3 × 10 −4 to 9 × 10 −6 and partition coefficients ( K ) from 1 × 10 7 to 9 × 10 4 . Trends in γ did not quantitatively follow trends in K , suggesting that the intermolecular forces involved in gas–surface interactions are not the same as those in the bulk, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Kinetic modeling showed that nitrates diffused throughout the organic films over several minutes, and that the bulk diffusion coefficients evolved as uptake/desorptionmore »occurred. A plasticizing effect occurred upon incorporation of the organic nitrates, whereas desorption caused decreases in diffusion coefficients in the upper layers, suggesting a crusting effect. Accurate predictions of particle growth in the atmosphere will require knowledge of uptake coefficients, which are likely to be several orders of magnitude less than one, and of the intermolecular interactions of gases with particle surfaces as well as with the particle bulk.« less
  3. Abstract We report on a long-lasting, elevated gamma-ray flux state from VER J0521+211 observed by VERITAS, MAGIC, and Fermi-LAT in 2013 and 2014. The peak integral flux above 200 GeV measured with the nightly binned light curve is (8.8 ± 0.4) × 10 −7 photons m −2 s −1 , or ∼37% of the Crab Nebula flux. Multiwavelength observations from X-ray, UV, and optical instruments are also presented. A moderate correlation between the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray fluxes was observed, and the X-ray spectrum appeared harder when the flux was higher. Using the gamma-ray spectrum and four models of the extragalactic background light (EBL), a conservative 95% confidence upper limit on the redshift of the source was found to be z ≤ 0.31. Unlike the gamma-ray and X-ray bands, the optical flux did not increase significantly during the studied period compared to the archival low-state flux. The spectral variability from optical to X-ray bands suggests that the synchrotron peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) may become broader during flaring states, which can be adequately described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model varying the high-energy end of the underlying particle spectrum. The synchrotron peak frequency of the SED and themore »radio morphology of the jet from the MOJAVE program are consistent with the source being an intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The results of gamma-ray observations of the binary system HESS J0632 + 057 collected during 450 hr over 15 yr, between 2004 and 2019, are presented. Data taken with the atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS at energies above 350 GeV were used together with observations at X-ray energies obtained with Swift-XRT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Suzaku. Some of these observations were accompanied by measurements of the H α emission line. A significant detection of the modulation of the very high-energy gamma-ray fluxes with a period of 316.7 ± 4.4 days is reported, consistent with the period of 317.3 ± 0.7 days obtained with a refined analysis of X-ray data. The analysis of data from four orbital cycles with dense observational coverage reveals short-timescale variability, with flux-decay timescales of less than 20 days at very high energies. Flux variations observed over a timescale of several years indicate orbit-to-orbit variability. The analysis confirms the previously reported correlation of X-ray and gamma-ray emission from the system at very high significance, but cannot find any correlation of optical H α parameters with fluxes at X-ray or gamma-ray energies in simultaneous observations. The key finding is that the emission of HESS J0632more »+ 057 in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands is highly variable on different timescales. The ratio of gamma-ray to X-ray flux shows the equality or even dominance of the gamma-ray energy range. This wealth of new data is interpreted taking into account the insufficient knowledge of the ephemeris of the system, and discussed in the context of results reported on other gamma-ray binary systems.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
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