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  1. null (Ed.)
    We report the solution structure of a europium-nicotianamine complex predicted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with density functional theory. Emission and excitation spectroscopy show that the Eu 3+ coordination environment changes in the presence of nicotianamine, suggesting complex formation, such as what is seen for the Eu 3+ –nicotianamine complex structure predicted from computation. We modeled Eu 3+ –ligand complexes with explicit water molecules in periodic boxes, effectively simulating the solution phase. Our simulations consider possible chemical events ( e.g. coordination bond formation, protonation state changes, charge transfers), as well as ligand flexibility and solvent rearrangements. Our computational approach correctly predicts the solution structure of a Eu 3+ –ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex within 0.05 Å of experimentally measured values, backing the fidelity of the predicted solution structure of the Eu 3+ –nicotianamine complex. Emission and excitation spectroscopy measurements were also performed on the well-known Eu 3+ –ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex to validate our experimental methods. The electronic structure of the Eu 3+ –nicotianamine complex is analyzed to describe the complexes in greater detail. Nicotianamine is a metabolic precursor of, and structurally very similar to, phytosiderophores, which are responsible for the uptake of metals in plants. Although knowledge that nicotianamine binds europium does not determine how plants uptake rare earths from the environment, it strongly supports that phytosiderophores bind lanthanides. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    A new naphthylsalophen and its 3 : 2 ligand-to-lanthanide sandwich-type complexes were isolated. When excited at 380 nm, the complexes display the characteristic metal-centred emission for Nd III , Er III and Yb III . Upon 980 nm excitation, in mixed lanthanide and the Er complexes, Er-centred upconversion emission at 543 and 656 nm is observed, with power densities as low as 2.18 W cm −2 . 
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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Four groups of rare-earth complexes, comprising 11 new compounds, with fluorinated O-donor ligands ([K(THF)6][Ln(OC4F9)4(THF)2] (1-Ln; Ln = Ce, Nd), [K](THF)x[Ln(OC4F9)4(THF)y] (2-Ln; Ln = Eu, Gd, Dy), [K(THF)2][Ln(pinF)2(THF)3] (3-Ln; Ln = Ce, Nd), and [K(THF)2][Ln(pinF)2(THF)2] (4-Ln; Ln = Eu, Gd, Dy, Y) have been synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were collected for all compounds except 2-Ln. Species 1-Ln, 3-Ln, and 4-Ln are uncommon examples of six-coordinate (Eu, Gd, Dy, and Y) and seven-coordinate (Ce and Nd) LnIII centers in all-O-donor environments. Species 1-Ln, 2-Ln, 3-Ln, and 4-Ln are all luminescent (except where Ln = Gd and Y), with the solid-state emission of 1-Ce being exceptionally blue-shifted for a Ce complex. The emission spectra of the six Nd, Eu, and Dy complexes do not show large differences based on the ligand and are generally consistent with the well-known free-ion spectra. Time-dependent density functional theory results show that 1-Ce and 3-Ce undergo allowed 5f → 4d excitations, consistent with luminescence lifetime measurements in the nanosecond range. Eu-containing 2-Eu and 4-Eu, however, were found to have luminescence lifetimes in the millisecond range, indicating phosphorescence rather than fluorescence. The performance of a pair of multireference models for prediction of the Ln = Nd, Eu, and Dy absorption spectra was assessed. It was found that spectroscopy-oriented configuration interaction as applied to a simplified model in which the free-ion lanthanide was embedded in ligand-centered Löwdin point charges performed as well (Nd) or better (Eu and Dy) than canonical NEVPT2 calculations, when the ligand orbitals were included in the treatment. 
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