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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 2, 2022
  2. In cells, cytoskeletal filament networks are responsible for cell movement, growth, and division. Filaments in the cytoskeleton are driven and organized by crosslinking molecular motors. In reconstituted cytoskeletal systems, motor activity is responsible for far-from-equilibrium phenomena such as active stress, self-organized flow, and spontaneous nematic defect generation. How microscopic interactions between motors and filaments lead to larger-scale dynamics remains incompletely understood. To build from motor–filament interactions to predict bulk behavior of cytoskeletal systems, more computationally efficient techniques for modeling motor–filament interactions are needed. Here, we derive a coarse-graining hierarchy of explicit and continuum models for crosslinking motors that bind tomore »and walk on filament pairs. We compare the steady-state motor distribution and motor-induced filament motion for the different models and analyze their computational cost. All three models agree well in the limit of fast motor binding kinetics. Evolving a truncated moment expansion of motor density speeds the computation by 103–106 compared to the explicit or continuous-density simulations, suggesting an approach for more efficient simulation of large networks. These tools facilitate further study of motor–filament networks on micrometer to millimeter length scales.« less
  3. Abstract The impacts of invasive species on biodiversity may be mitigated or exacerbated by abiotic environmental changes. Invasive plants can restructure soil fungal communities with important implications for native biodiversity and nutrient cycling, yet fungal responses to invasion may depend on numerous anthropogenic stressors. In this study, we experimentally invaded a long-term soil warming and simulated nitrogen deposition experiment with the widespread invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and tested the responses of soil fungal communities to invasion, abiotic factors, and their interaction. We focused on the phytotoxic garlic mustard because it suppresses native mycorrhizae across forests of North America.more »We found that invasion in combination with warming, but not under ambient conditions or elevated nitrogen, significantly reduced soil fungal biomass and ectomycorrhizal relative abundances and increased relative abundances of general soil saprotrophs and fungal genes encoding for hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that warming potentially exacerbates fungal responses to plant invasion. Soils collected from uninvaded and invaded plots across eight forests spanning a 4 °C temperature gradient further demonstrated that the magnitude of fungal responses to invasion was positively correlated with mean annual temperature. Our study is one of the first empirical tests to show that the impacts of invasion on fungal communities depends on additional anthropogenic pressures and were greater in concert with warming than under elevated nitrogen or ambient conditions.« less
  4. BACKGROUND: Children born prematurely (<37 gestational weeks) are at risk for a variety of adverse medical events. They may experience ischemic and/or hemorrhagic events leading to negative neural sequelae. They are also exposed to repeated stressful experiences as part of life-saving care within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). These experiences have been associated with methylation of SLC6A4, a gene which codes for serotonin transport proteins, and is associated with anxiety, depression, and increased incidence of autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of altered serotonin levels on behavioral and neuroanatomical outcomes in amore »neonatal rodent model with or without exposure to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. METHODS: Wistar rat pups were randomly assigned to either HI injury or sham groups. Pups within each group were treated with a chronic SSRI (Citalopram HBr) to simulate the effects of SLC6A4 methylation, or saline (NS). Subjects were assessed on behavioral tasks and neuropathologic indices. RESULTS: HI injured subjects performed poorly on behavioral tasks. SSRI subjects did not display significantly greater anxiety. HI + SSRI subjects learned faster than HI+NS. Histologically, SSRI subjects had predominantly larger brain volumes than NS. CONCLUSION: SSRI treated subjects without injury showed patterns of increased anxiety, consistent with theories of SLC6A4 methylation. The paradoxical trend to improved cognition in HI+SSRI subjects relative to HI alone, may reflect an unexpected SSRI neuroprotective effect in the presence of injury, and may be related to serotonin-induced neurogenesis.« less
  5. Climate-driven depletion of ocean oxygen strongly impacts the global cycles of carbon and nutrients as well as the survival of many animal species. One of the main uncertainties in predicting changes to marine oxygen levels is the regulation of the biological respiration demand associated with the biological pump. Derived from the Redfield ratio, the molar ratio of oxygen to organic carbon consumed during respiration (i.e., the respiration quotient,rO2:C) is consistently assumed constant but rarely, if ever, measured. Using a prognostic Earth system model, we show that a 0.1 increase in the respiration quotient from 1.0 leads to a 2.3%more »decline in global oxygen, a large expansion of low-oxygen zones, additional water column denitrification of 38 Tg N/y, and the loss of fixed nitrogen and carbon production in the ocean. We then present direct chemical measurements ofrO2:Cusing a Pacific Ocean meridional transect crossing all major surface biome types. The observedrO2:Chas a positive correlation with temperature, and regional mean values differ significantly from Redfield proportions. Finally, an independent global inverse model analysis constrained with nutrients, oxygen, and carbon concentrations supports a positive temperature dependence ofrO2:Cin exported organic matter. We provide evidence against the common assumption of a static biological link between the respiration of organic carbon and the consumption of oxygen. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that a changing respiration quotient will impact multiple biogeochemical cycles and that future warming can lead to more intense deoxygenation than previously anticipated.

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  6. Pressure alters the physical, chemical, and electronic properties of matter. The diamond anvil cell enables tabletop experiments to investigate a diverse landscape of high-pressure phenomena. Here, we introduce and use a nanoscale sensing platform that integrates nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers directly into the culet of diamond anvils. We demonstrate the versatility of this platform by performing diffraction-limited imaging of both stress fields and magnetism as a function of pressure and temperature. We quantify all normal and shear stress components and demonstrate vector magnetic field imaging, enabling measurement of the pressure-driven α ↔ ϵ phase transition in iron and the complexmore »pressure-temperature phase diagram of gadolinium. A complementary NV-sensing modality using noise spectroscopy enables the characterization of phase transitions even in the absence of static magnetic signatures.« less
  7. Abstract Human activities are transforming grassland biomass via changing climate, elemental nutrients, and herbivory. Theory predicts that food-limited herbivores will consume any additional biomass stimulated by nutrient inputs (‘consumer-controlled’). Alternatively, nutrient supply is predicted to increase biomass where herbivores alter community composition or are limited by factors other than food (‘resource-controlled’). Using an experiment replicated in 58 grasslands spanning six continents, we show that nutrient addition and vertebrate herbivore exclusion each caused sustained increases in aboveground live biomass over a decade, but consumer control was weak. However, at sites with high vertebrate grazing intensity or domestic livestock, herbivores consumed themore »additional fertilization-induced biomass, supporting the consumer-controlled prediction. Herbivores most effectively reduced the additional live biomass at sites with low precipitation or high ambient soil nitrogen. Overall, these experimental results suggest that grassland biomass will outstrip wild herbivore control as human activities increase elemental nutrient supply, with widespread consequences for grazing and fire risk.« less