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  1. Abstract

    We present a JWST mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum of the underluminous Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) 2022xkq, obtained with the medium-resolution spectrometer on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) ∼130 days post-explosion. We identify the first MIR lines beyond 14μm in SN Ia observations. We find features unique to underluminous SNe Ia, including the following: isolated emission of stable Ni, strong blends of [Tiii], and large ratios of singly ionized to doubly ionized species in both [Ar] and [Co]. Comparisons to normal-luminosity SNe Ia spectra at similar phases show a tentative trend between the width of the [Coiii] 11.888μm feature and the SN light-curve shape. Using non-LTE-multi-dimensional radiation hydro simulations and the observed electron capture elements, we constrain the mass of the exploding WD. The best-fitting model shows that SN 2022xkq is consistent with an off-center delayed-detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar mass WD (MWD≈1.37M) of high central density (ρc≥ 2.0 × 109g cm−3) seen equator-on, which producedM(56Ni) =0.324MandM(58Ni) ≥0.06M. The observed line widths are consistent with the overall abundance distribution; and the narrow stable Ni lines indicate little to no mixing in the central regions, favoring central ignition of subsonic carbon burning followed by an off-center deflagration-to-detonation transition beginning at a single point. Additional observations may further constrain the physics revealing the presence of additional species including Cr and Mn. Our work demonstrates the power of using the full coverage of MIRI in combination with detailed modeling to elucidate the physics of SNe Ia at a level not previously possible.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    We present extensive ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometric and optical spectroscopic follow-up of supernova (SN) 2021gno by the ‘Precision Observations of Infant Supernova Explosions’ (POISE) project, starting less than 2 d after the explosion. Given its intermediate luminosity, fast photometric evolution, and quick transition to the nebular phase with spectra dominated by [Ca ii] lines, SN 2021gno belongs to the small family of Calcium-rich transients. Moreover, it shows double-peaked light curves, a phenomenon shared with only four other Calcium-rich events. The projected distance from the centre of the host galaxy is not as large as other objects in this family. The initial optical light-curve peaks coincide with a very quick decline of the UV flux, indicating a fast initial cooling phase. Through hydrodynamical modelling of the bolometric light curve and line velocity evolution, we found that the observations are compatible with the explosion of a highly stripped massive star with an ejecta mass of $0.8\, M_\odot$ and a 56Ni mass of 0.024 M⊙. The initial cooling phase (first light-curve peak) is explained by the presence of an extended circumstellar material comprising ∼$10^{-2}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$ with an extension of $1100\, R_{\odot }$. We discuss if hydrogen features are present in both maximum-light and nebular spectra, and their implications in terms of the proposed progenitor scenarios for Calcium-rich transients.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    We present ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR) observations and analysis of the nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2021fxy. Our observations include UV photometry from Swift/UVOT, UV spectroscopy from HST/STIS, and high-cadence optical photometry with the Swope 1-m telescope capturing intranight rises during the early light curve. Early B − V colours show SN 2021fxy is the first ‘shallow-silicon’ (SS) SN Ia to follow a red-to-blue evolution, compared to other SS objects which show blue colours from the earliest observations. Comparisons to other spectroscopically normal SNe Ia with HST UV spectra reveal SN 2021fxy is one of several SNe Ia with flux suppression in the mid-UV. These SNe also show blueshifted mid-UV spectral features and strong high-velocity Ca ii features. One possible origin of this mid-UV suppression is the increased effective opacity in the UV due to increased line blanketing from high velocity material, but differences in the explosion mechanism cannot be ruled out. Among SNe Ia with mid-UV suppression, SNe 2021fxy and 2017erp show substantial similarities in their optical properties despite belonging to different Branch subgroups, and UV flux differences of the same order as those found between SNe 2011fe and 2011by. Differential comparisons to multiple sets of synthetic SN Ia UV spectra reveal this UV flux difference likely originates from a luminosity difference between SNe 2021fxy and 2017erp, and not differing progenitor metallicities as suggested for SNe 2011by and 2011fe. These comparisons illustrate the complicated nature of UV spectral formation, and the need for more UV spectra to determine the physical source of SNe Ia UV diversity.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present multiwavelength time-series spectroscopy of SN 2013aa and SN 2017cbv, two Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on the outskirts of the same host galaxy, NGC 5643. This work utilizes new nebular-phase near-infrared (NIR) spectra obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II, in addition to previously published optical and NIR spectra. Using nebular-phase [Feii] lines in the optical and NIR, we examine the explosion kinematics and test the efficacy of several common emission-line-fitting techniques. The NIR [Feii] 1.644μm line provides the most robust velocity measurements against variations due to the choice of the fit method and line blending. The resulting effects on velocity measurements due to choosing different fit methods, initial fit parameters, continuum and line profile functions, and fit region boundaries were also investigated. The NIR [Feii] velocities yield the same radial shift direction as velocities measured using the optical [Feii]λ7155 line, but the sizes of the shifts are consistently and substantially lower, pointing to a potential issue in optical studies. The NIR [Feii] 1.644μm emission profile shows a lack of significant asymmetry in both SNe, and the observed low velocities elevate the importance for correcting for any velocity contribution from the host galaxy’s rotation. The low [Feii] velocities measured in the NIR at nebular phases disfavor progenitor scenarios in close double-degenerate systems for both SN 2013aa and SN 2017cbv. The time evolution of the NIR [Feii] 1.644μm line also indicates moderately high progenitor white dwarf central density and potentially high magnetic fields.

     
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  5. Type II supernovae (SNe II) show great photometric and spectroscopic diversity which is attributed to the varied physical characteristics of their progenitor and explosion properties. In this study, the third of a series of papers where we analyse a large sample of SNe II observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, we present correlations between their observed and physical properties. Our analysis shows that explosion energy is the physical property that correlates with the highest number of parameters. We recover previously suggested relationships between the hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau duration, and find that more luminous SNe II with higher expansion velocities, faster declining light curves, and higher 56 Ni masses are consistent with higher energy explosions. In addition, faster declining SNe II (usually called SNe IIL) are also compatible with more concentrated 56 Ni in the inner regions of the ejecta. Positive trends are found between the initial mass, explosion energy, and 56 Ni mass. While the explosion energy spans the full range explored with our models, the initial mass generally arises from a relatively narrow range. Observable properties were measured from our grid of bolometric LC and photospheric velocity models to determine the effect of each physical parameter on the observed SN II diversity. We argue that explosion energy is the physical parameter causing the greatest impact on SN II diversity, that is, assuming the non-rotating solar-metallicity single-star evolution as in the models used in this study. The inclusion of pre-SN models assuming higher mass loss produces a significant increase in the strength of some correlations, particularly those between the progenitor hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau and optically thick phase durations. These differences clearly show the impact of having different treatments of stellar evolution, implying that changes in the assumption of standard single-star evolution are necessary for a complete understanding of SN II diversity. 
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  6. Abstract

    We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2021aefx. The early-timeu-band light curve shows an excess flux when compared to normal SNe Ia. We suggest that the early excess blue flux may be due to a rapid change in spectral velocity in the first few days post explosion, produced by the emission of the CaiiH&K feature passing from theuto theBbands on the timescale of a few days. This effect could be dominant for all SNe Ia that have broad absorption features and early-time velocities over 25,000 km s−1. It is likely to be one of the main causes of early excessu-band flux in SNe Ia that have early-time high velocities. This effect may also be dominant in the UV filters, as well as in places where the SN spectral energy distribution is quickly rising to longer wavelengths. The rapid change in velocity can only produce a monotonic change (in flux-space) in theuband. For objects that explode at lower velocities, and have a more structured shape in the early excess emission, there must also be an additional parameter producing the early-time diversity. More early-time observations, in particular early spectra, are required to determine how prominent this effect is within SNe Ia.

     
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  7. ABSTRACT

    We present detailed investigation of a specific i-band light-curve feature in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using the rapid cadence and high signal-to-noise ratio light curves obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The feature is present in most SNe Ia and emerges a few days after the i-band maximum. It is an abrupt change in curvature in the light curve over a few days and appears as a flattening in mild cases and a strong downward concave shape, or a ‘kink’, in the most extreme cases. We computed the second derivatives of Gaussian Process interpolations to study 54 rapid-cadence light curves. From the second derivatives we measure: (1) the timing of the feature in days relative to i-band maximum; tdm2(i) and (2) the strength and direction of the concavity in mag d−2; dm2(i). 76 per cent of the SNe Ia show a negative dm2(i), representing a downward concavity – either a mild flattening or a strong ‘kink’. The tdm2(i) parameter is shown to correlate with the colour-stretch parameter sBV, a SN Ia primary parameter. The dm2(i) parameter shows no correlation with sBV and therefore provides independent information. It is also largely independent of the spectroscopic and environmental properties. Dividing the sample based on the strength of the light-curve feature as measured by dm2(i), SNe Ia with strong features have a Hubble diagram dispersion of 0.107 mag, 0.075 mag smaller than the group with weak features. Although larger samples should be obtained to test this result, it potentially offers a new method for improving SN Ia distance determinations without shifting to more costly near-infrared or spectroscopic observations.

     
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  8. Abstract

    We present a JWST/MIRI low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observation of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2021aefx at +323 days past rest-frameB-band maximum light. The spectrum ranges from 4 to 14μm and shows many unique qualities, including a flat-topped [Ariii] 8.991μm profile, a strongly tilted [Coiii] 11.888μm feature, and multiple stable Ni lines. These features provide critical information about the physics of the explosion. The observations are compared to synthetic spectra from detailed non–local thermodynamic equilibrium multidimensional models. The results of the best-fitting model are used to identify the components of the spectral blends and provide a quantitative comparison to the explosion physics. Emission line profiles and the presence of electron capture elements are used to constrain the mass of the exploding white dwarf (WD) and the chemical asymmetries in the ejecta. We show that the observations of SN 2021aefx are consistent with an off-center delayed detonation explosion of a near–Chandrasekhar mass (MCh) WD at a viewing angle of −30° relative to the point of the deflagration to detonation transition. From the strengths of the stable Ni lines, we determine that there is little to no mixing in the central regions of the ejecta. Based on both the presence of stable Ni and the Ar velocity distributions, we obtain a strict lower limit of 1.2Mfor the initial WD, implying that most sub-MChexplosions models are not viable models for SN 2021aefx. The analysis here shows the crucial importance of MIR spectra in distinguishing between explosion scenarios for SNe Ia.

     
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  9. Abstract We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8−2.5 μ m) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the largest NIR spectroscopic sample of SESNe to date. NIR spectroscopy provides observables with additional information that is not available in the optical. Specifically, the NIR contains the strong lines of He i and allows a more detailed look at whether Type Ic supernovae are completely stripped of their outer He layer. The NIR spectra of SESNe have broad similarities, but closer examination through statistical means reveals a strong dichotomy between NIR “He-rich” and “He-poor” SNe. These NIR subgroups correspond almost perfectly to the optical IIb/Ib and Ic/Ic-BL types, respectively. The largest difference between the two groups is observed in the 2 μ m region, near the He i λ 2.0581 μ m line. The division between the two groups is not an arbitrary one along a continuous sequence. Early spectra of He-rich SESNe show much stronger He i λ 2.0581 μ m absorption compared to the He-poor group, but with a wide range of profile shapes. The same line also provides evidence for trace amounts of He in half of our SNe in the He-poor group. 
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  10. Abstract

    We present optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the fast-declining Type Ia supernova (SN) 2015bo. SN 2015bo is underluminous (MB= −17.50 ± 0.15 mag) and has a fast-evolving light curve (Δm15(B) = 1.91 ± 0.01 mag andsBV= 0.48 ± 0.01). It has a unique morphology in the observedVrcolor curve, where it is bluer than all other supernovae (SNe) in the comparison sample. A56Ni mass of 0.17 ± 0.03Mwas derived from the peak bolometric luminosity, which is consistent with its location on the luminosity–width relation. Spectroscopically, SN 2015bo is a cool SN in the Branch classification scheme. The velocity evolution measured from spectral features is consistent with 1991bg-like SNe. SN 2015bo has a SN twin (similar spectra)andsibling (same host galaxy), SN 1997cn. Distance moduli ofμ= 34.33 ± 0.01 (stat) ±0.11 (sys) mag andμ= 34.34 ± 0.04 (stat) ± 0.12 (sys) mag are derived for SN 2015bo and SN 1997cn, respectively. These distances are consistent at the 0.06σlevel with each other, and they are also consistent with distances derived using surface-brightness fluctuations and redshift-corrected cosmology. This suggests that fast-declining SNe could be accurate distance indicators, which should not be excluded from future cosmological analyses.

     
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