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Creators/Authors contains: "Mortveit, Henning"

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  1. Abstract Efficient energy consumption is crucial for achieving sustainable energy goals in the era of climate change and grid modernization. Thus, it is vital to understand how energy is consumed at finer resolutions such as household in order to plan demand-response events or analyze impacts of weather, electricity prices, electric vehicles, solar, and occupancy schedules on energy consumption. However, availability and access to detailed energy-use data, which would enable detailed studies, has been rare. In this paper, we release a unique, large-scale, digital-twin of residential energy-use dataset for the residential sector across the contiguous United States covering millions of households. The data comprise of hourly energy use profiles for synthetic households, disaggregated into Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCL) and appliance use. The underlying framework is constructed using a bottom-up approach. Diverse open-source surveys and first principles models are used for end-use modeling. Extensive validation of the synthetic dataset has been conducted through comparisons with reported energy-use data. We present a detailed, open, high resolution, residential energy-use dataset for the United States. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 25, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The ongoing Russian aggression against Ukraine has forced over eight million people to migrate out of Ukraine. Understanding the dynamics of forced migration is essential for policy-making and for delivering humanitarian assistance. Existing work is hindered by a reliance on observational data which is only available well after the fact. In this work, we study the efficacy of a data-driven agent-based framework motivated by social and behavioral theory in predicting outflow of migrants as a result of conflict events during the initial phase of the Ukraine war. We discuss policy use cases for the proposed framework by demonstrating how it can leverage refugee demographic details to answer pressing policy questions. We also show how to incorporate conflict forecast scenarios to predict future conflict-induced migration flows. Detailed future migration estimates across various conflict scenarios can both help to reduce policymaker uncertainty and improve allocation and staging of limited humanitarian resources in crisis settings.

     
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  4. There is little significant work at the intersection of mathematical and computational epidemiology and detailed psychological processes, representations, and mechanisms. This is true despite general agreement in the scientific community and the general public that human behavior in its seemingly infinite variation and heterogeneity, susceptibility to bias, context, and habit is an integral if not fundamental component of what drives the dynamics of infectious disease. The COVID-19 pandemic serves as a close and poignant reminder. We offer a 10-year prospectus of kinds that centers around an unprecedented scientific approach: the integration of detailed psychological models into rigorous mathematical and computational epidemiological frameworks in a way that pushes the boundaries of both psychological science and population models of behavior. 
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  5. In large agent-based models, it is difficult to identify the correlate system-level dynamics with individuallevel attributes. In this paper, we use inverse reinforcement learning to estimate compact representations of behaviors in large-scale pandemic simulations in the form of reward functions. We illustrate the capacity and performance of these representations identifying agent-level attributes that correlate with the emerging dynamics of large-scale multi-agent systems. Our experiments use BESSIE, an ABM for COVID-like epidemic processes, where agents make sequential decisions (e.g., use PPE/refrain from activities) based on observations (e.g., number of mask wearing people) collected when visiting locations to conduct their activities. The IRL-based reformulations of simulation outputs perform significantly better in classification of agent-level attributes than direct classification of decision trajectories and are thus more capable of determining agent-level attributes with definitive role in the collective behavior of the system. We anticipate that this IRL-based approach is broadly applicable to general ABMs. 
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  6. The power grid is going through significant changes with the introduction of renewable energy sources and the incorporation of smart grid technologies. These rapid advancements necessitate new models and analyses to keep up with the various emergent phenomena they induce. A major prerequisite of such work is the acquisition of well-constructed and accurate network datasets for the power grid infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a robust, scalable framework to synthesize power distribution networks that resemble their physical counterparts for a given region. We use openly available information about interdependent road and building infrastructures to construct the networks. In contrast to prior work based on network statistics, we incorporate engineering and economic constraints to create the networks. Additionally, we provide a framework to create ensembles of power distribution networks to generate multiple possible instances of the network for a given region. The comprehensive dataset consists of nodes with attributes, such as geocoordinates; type of node (residence, transformer, or substation); and edges with attributes, such as geometry, type of line (feeder lines, primary or secondary), and line parameters. For validation, we provide detailed comparisons of the generated networks with actual distribution networks. The generated datasets represent realistic test systems (as compared with standard test cases published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)) that can be used by network scientists to analyze complex events in power grids and to perform detailed sensitivity and statistical analyses over ensembles of networks. 
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  7. Residential consumers have become active participants in the power distribution network after being equipped with residential EV charging provisions. This creates a challenge for the network operator tasked with dispatching electric power to the residential consumers through the existing distribution network infrastructure in a reliable manner. In this paper, we address the problem of scheduling residential EV charging for multiple consumers while maintaining network reliability. An additional challenge is the restricted exchange of information: where the consumers do not have access to network information and the network operator does not have access to consumer load parameters. We propose a distributed framework which generates an optimal EV charging schedule for individual residential consumers based on their preferences and iteratively updates it until the network reliability constraints set by the operator are satisfied. We validate the proposed approach for different EV adoption levels in a synthetically created digital twin of an actual power distribution network. The results demonstrate that the new approach can achieve a higher level of network reliability compared to the case where residential consumers charge EVs based solely on their individual preferences, thus providing a solution for the existing grid to keep up with increased adoption rates without significant investments in increasing grid capacity.

     
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  8. Globalization and climate change facilitate the spread and establishment of invasive species throughout the world via multiple pathways. These spread mechanisms can be effectively represented as diffusion processes on multi-scale, spatial networks. Such network-based modeling and simulation approaches are being increasingly applied in this domain. However, these works tend to be largely domain-specific, lacking any graph theoretic formalisms, and do not take advantage of more recent developments in network science. This work is aimed toward filling some of these gaps. We develop a generic multi-scale spatial network framework that is applicable to a wide range of models developed in the literature on biological invasions. A key question we address is the following: how do individual pathways and their combinations influence the rate and pattern of spread? The analytical complexity arises more from the multi-scale nature and complex functional components of the networks rather than from the sizes of the networks. We present theoretical bounds on the spectral radius and the diameter of multi-scale networks. These two structural graph parameters have established connections to diffusion processes. Specifically, we study how network properties, such as spectral radius and diameter are influenced by model parameters. Further, we analyze a multi-pathway diffusion model from the literature by conducting simulations on synthetic and real-world networks and then use regression tree analysis to identify the important network and diffusion model parameters that influence the dynamics. 
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