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  1. Abstract

    We present results on the properties of extreme gas outflows in massive (M*∼ 1011M), compact, starburst (star formation rate, SFR∼ 200Myr−1) galaxies atz= 0.4–0.7 with very high star formation surface densities (ΣSFR∼ 2000Myr−1kpc−2). Using optical Keck/HIRES spectroscopy of 14 HizEA starburst galaxies, we identify outflows with maximum velocities of 820–2860 km s−1. High-resolution spectroscopy allows us to measure precise column densities and covering fractions as a function of outflow velocity and characterize the kinematics and structure of the cool gas outflow phase (T∼ 104K). We find substantial variation in the absorption profiles, which likely reflects the complex morphology of inhomogeneously distributed, clumpy gas and the intricacy of the turbulent mixing layers between the cold and hot outflow phases. There is not a straightforward correlation between the bursts in the galaxies’ star formation histories and their wind absorption line profiles, as might naively be expected for starburst-driven winds. The lack of strong Mgiiabsorption at the systemic velocity is likely an orientation effect, where the observations are down the axis of a blowout. We infer high mass outflow rates of ∼50–2200Myr−1, assuming a fiducial outflow size of 5 kpc, and mass loading factors ofη∼ 5 for most of the sample. Whilemore »these values have high uncertainties, they suggest that starburst galaxies are capable of ejecting very large amounts of cool gas that will substantially impact their future evolution.

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  2. ABSTRACT

    We measure the tidal alignment of the major axes of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Legacy Imaging Survey and use it to infer the artificial redshift-space distortion signature that will arise from an orientation-dependent, surface-brightness selection in the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Using photometric redshifts to downweight the shape–density correlations due to weak lensing, we measure the intrinsic tidal alignment of LRGs. Separately, we estimate the net polarization of LRG orientations from DESI’s fibre-magnitude target selection to be of order 10−2 along the line of sight. Using these measurements and a linear tidal model, we forecast a 0.5 per cent fractional decrease on the quadrupole of the two-point correlation function for projected separations of 40–80 h−1 Mpc. We also use a halo catalogue from the Abacussummit cosmological simulation suite to reproduce this false quadrupole.

  3. Abstract

    The dispersion in chemical abundances provides a very strong constraint on the processes that drive the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Due to its proximity, the spiral galaxy M33 has been the focus of numerous chemical abundance surveys to study the chemical enrichment and dispersion in abundances over large spatial scales. The CHemical Abundances Of Spirals project has observed ∼100 Hiiregions in M33 with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), producing the largest homogeneous sample of electron temperatures (Te) and direct abundances in this galaxy. Our LBT observations produce a robust oxygen abundance gradient of −0.037 ± 0.007 dex kpc−1and indicate a relatively small (0.043 ± 0.015 dex) intrinsic dispersion in oxygen abundance relative to this gradient. The dispersions in N/H and N/O are similarly small, and the abundances of Ne, S, Cl, and Ar relative to O are consistent with the solar ratio as expected forα-process orα-process-dependent elements. Taken together, the ISM in M33 is chemically well-mixed and homogeneously enriched from inside out, with no evidence of significant abundance variations at a given radius in the galaxy. Our results are compared to those of the numerous studies in the literature, and we discuss possible contaminating sources that can inflate abundancemore »dispersion measurements. Importantly, if abundances are derived from a singleTemeasurement andTeTerelationships are relied on for inferring the temperature in the unmeasured ionization zone, this can lead to systematic biases that increase the measured dispersion up to 0.11 dex.

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  4. Abstract

    We utilize ∼17,000 bright luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the novel Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Survey Validation spectroscopic sample, leveraging its deep (∼2.5 hr galaxy−1exposure time) spectra to characterize the contribution of recently quenched galaxies to the massive galaxy population at 0.4 <z< 1.3. We useProspectorto infer nonparametric star formation histories and identify a significant population of recently quenched galaxies that have joined the quiescent population within the past ∼1 Gyr. The highest-redshift subset (277 atz> 1) of our sample of recently quenched galaxies represents the largest spectroscopic sample of post-starburst galaxies at that epoch. At 0.4 <z< 0.8, we measure the number density of quiescent LRGs, finding that recently quenched galaxies constitute a growing fraction of the massive galaxy population with increasing look-back time. Finally, we quantify the importance of this population among massive (log(M/M)> 11.2) LRGs by measuring the fraction of stellar mass each galaxy formed in the gigayear before observation,f1 Gyr. Although galaxies withf1 Gyr> 0.1 are rare atz∼ 0.4 (≲0.5% of the population), byz∼ 0.8, they constitute ∼3% of massive galaxies. Relaxing this threshold, we find that galaxies withf1 Gyr> 5% constitute ∼10% of the massive galaxy population atzmore »0.8. We also identify a small but significant sample of galaxies atz= 1.1–1.3 that formed withf1 Gyr> 50%, implying that they may be analogs to high-redshift quiescent galaxies that formed on similar timescales. Future analysis of this unprecedented sample promises to illuminate the physical mechanisms that drive the quenching of massive galaxies after cosmic noon.

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  5. Abstract

    We present a measurement of the intrinsic space density of intermediate-redshift (z∼ 0.5), massive (M*∼ 1011M), compact (Re∼ 100 pc) starburst (ΣSFR∼ 1000Myr−1kpc−1) galaxies with tidal features indicative of them having undergone recent major mergers. A subset of them host kiloparsec-scale, > 1000 km s−1outflows and have little indication of AGN activity, suggesting that extreme star formation can be a primary driver of large-scale feedback. The aim for this paper is to calculate their space density so we can place them in a better cosmological context. We do this by empirically modeling the stellar populations of massive, compact starburst galaxies. We determine the average timescale on which galaxies that have recently undergone an extreme nuclear starburst would be targeted and included in our spectroscopically selected sample. We find that massive, compact starburst galaxies targeted by our criteria would be selectable for14824+27Myr and have an intrinsic space densitynCS(1.10.3+0.5)×106Mpc3. This space density is broadly consistent with ourz∼ 0.5 compact starbursts being the most extremely compact and star-forming low-redshift analogs of the compact star-forming galaxies in the early universe, as well as them being the progenitors to a fraction of intermediate-redshift, post-starburst, andmore »compact quiescent galaxies.

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  6. Abstract Virgo is the nearest galaxy cluster; it is thus ideal for studies of galaxy evolution in dense environments in the local universe. It is embedded in a complex filamentary network of galaxies and groups, which represents the skeleton of the large-scale Laniakea supercluster. Here we assemble a comprehensive catalog of galaxies extending up to ∼12 virial radii in projection from Virgo to revisit the cosmic-web structure around it. This work is the foundation of a series of papers that will investigate the multiwavelength properties of galaxies in the cosmic web around Virgo. We match spectroscopically confirmed sources from several databases and surveys including HyperLeda, NASA Sloan Atlas, NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, and ALFALFA. The sample consists of ∼7000 galaxies. By exploiting a tomographic approach, we identify 13 filaments, spanning several megaparsecs in length. Long >17 h –1 Mpc filaments, tend to be thin (<1 h –1 Mpc in radius) and with a low-density contrast (<5), while shorter filaments show a larger scatter in their structural properties. Overall, we find that filaments are a transitioning environment between the field and cluster in terms of local densities, galaxy morphologies, and fraction of barred galaxies. Denser filaments have a higher fraction of early-typemore »galaxies, suggesting that the morphology–density relation is already in place in the filaments, before galaxies fall into the cluster itself. We release the full catalog of galaxies around Virgo and their associated properties.« less
  7. Abstract

    Over the next 5 yr, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will use 10 spectrographs with 5000 fibers on the 4 m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory to conduct the first Stage IV dark energy galaxy survey. Atz< 0.6, the DESI Bright Galaxy Survey (BGS) will produce the most detailed map of the universe during the dark-energy-dominated epoch with redshifts of >10 million galaxies spanning 14,000 deg2. In this work, we present and validate the final BGS target selection and survey design. From the Legacy Surveys, BGS will target anr< 19.5 mag limited sample (BGS Bright), a fainter 19.5 <r< 20.175 color-selected sample (BGS Faint), and a smaller low-zquasar sample. BGS will observe these targets using exposure times scaled to achieve homogeneous completeness and cover the footprint three times. We use observations from the Survey Validation programs conducted prior to the main survey along with simulations to show that BGS can complete its strategy and make optimal use of “bright” time. BGS targets have stellar contamination <1%, and their densities do not depend strongly on imaging properties. BGS Bright will achieve >80% fiber assignment efficiency. Finally, BGS Bright and BGS Faint will achieve >95% redshift success overmore »any observing condition. BGS meets the requirements for an extensive range of scientific applications. BGS will yield the most precise baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift-space distortion measurements atz< 0.4. It presents opportunities for new methods that require highly complete and dense samples (e.g.,N-point statistics, multitracers). BGS further provides a powerful tool to study galaxy populations and the relations between galaxies and dark matter.

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  9. Abstract

    We describe the Milky Way Survey (MWS) that will be undertaken with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) on the Mayall 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Over the next 5 yr DESI MWS will observe approximately seven million stars at Galactic latitudes ∣b∣ > 20°, with an inclusive target selection scheme focused on the thick disk and stellar halo. MWS will also include several high-completeness samples of rare stellar types, including white dwarfs, low-mass stars within 100 pc of the Sun, and horizontal branch stars. We summarize the potential of DESI to advance understanding of the Galactic structure and stellar evolution. We introduce the final definitions of the main MWS target classes and estimate the number of stars in each class that will be observed. We describe our pipelines for deriving radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and chemical abundances. We use ≃500,000 spectra of unique stellar targets from the DESI Survey Validation program (SV) to demonstrate that our pipelines can measure radial velocities to ≃1 km s−1and [Fe/H] accurate to ≃0.2 dex for typical stars in our main sample. We find the stellar parameter distributions from ≈100 deg2of SV observations with ≳90% completeness on our mainmore »sample are in good agreement with expectations from mock catalogs and previous surveys.

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  10. Abstract

    We present results on the nature of extreme ejective feedback episodes and the physical conditions of a population of massive (M*∼ 1011M), compact starburst galaxies atz= 0.4–0.7. We use data from Keck/NIRSPEC, SDSS, Gemini/GMOS, MMT, and Magellan/MagE to measure rest-frame optical and near-IR spectra of 14 starburst galaxies with extremely high star formation rate surface densities (mean ΣSFR∼ 2000Myr−1kpc−2) and powerful galactic outflows (maximum speedsv98∼ 1000–3000 km s−1). Our unique data set includes an ensemble of both emission ([Oii]λλ3726,3729, Hβ, [Oiii]λλ4959,5007, Hα, [Nii]λλ6549,6585, and [Sii]λλ6716,6731) and absorption (Mgiiλλ2796,2803, and Feiiλ2586) lines that allow us to investigate the kinematics of the cool gas phase (T∼ 104K) in the outflows. Employing a suite of line ratio diagnostic diagrams, we find that the central starbursts are characterized by high electron densities (medianne∼ 530 cm−3), and high metallicity (solar or supersolar). We show that the outflows are most likely driven by stellar feedback emerging from the extreme central starburst, rather than by an AGN. We also present multiple intriguing observational signatures suggesting that these galaxies may have substantial Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage, including weak [Sii]nebular emission lines. Our results imply that these galaxies may be captured in a short-lived phase of extrememore »star formation and feedback where much of their gas is violently blown out by powerful outflows that open up channels for LyC photons to escape.

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