skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Moustakas, John"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 18, 2025

    We present a simple, differentiable method for predicting emission line strengths from rest-frame optical continua using an empirically determined mapping. Extensive work has been done to develop mock galaxy catalogues that include robust predictions for galaxy photometry, but reliably predicting the strengths of emission lines has remained challenging. Our new mapping is a simple neural network implemented using the JAX Python automatic differentiation library. It is trained on Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Early Release data to predict the equivalent widths (EWs) of the eight brightest optical emission lines (including H α, H β, [O ii], and [O iii]) from a galaxy’s rest-frame optical continuum. The predicted EW distributions are consistent with the observed ones when noise is accounted for, and we find Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient ρs > 0.87 between predictions and observations for most lines. Using a non-linear dimensionality reduction technique, we show that this is true for galaxies across the full range of observed spectral energy distributions. In addition, we find that adding measurement uncertainties to the predicted line strengths is essential for reproducing the distribution of observed line-ratios in the BPT diagram. Our trained network can easily be incorporated into a differentiable stellar population synthesis pipeline without hindering differentiability or scalability with GPUs. A synthetic catalogue generated with such a pipeline can be used to characterize and account for biases in the spectroscopic training sets used for training and calibration of photo-z’s, improving the modelling of systematic incompleteness for the Rubin Observatory LSST and other surveys.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present the 2020 version of the Siena Galaxy Atlas (SGA-2020), a multiwavelength optical and infrared imaging atlas of 383,620 nearby galaxies. The SGA-2020 uses opticalgrzimaging over ≈20,000 deg2from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) Legacy Imaging Surveys Data Release 9 and infrared imaging in four bands (spanning 3.4–22μm) from the 6 year unWISE coadds; it is more than 95% complete for galaxies larger thanR(26) ≈ 25″ andr< 18 measured at the 26 mag arcsec−2isophote in therband. The atlas delivers precise coordinates, multiwavelength mosaics, azimuthally averaged optical surface-brightness profiles, model images and photometry, and additional ancillary metadata for the full sample. Coupled with existing and forthcoming optical spectroscopy from the DESI, the SGA-2020 will facilitate new detailed studies of the star formation and mass assembly histories of nearby galaxies; enable precise measurements of the local velocity field via the Tully–Fisher and fundamental plane relations; serve as a reference sample of lasting legacy value for time-domain and multimessenger astronomical events; and more.

    more » « less

    We present the first comprehensive halo occupation distribution (HOD) analysis of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) One-Percent Survey luminous red galaxy (LRG) and Quasi Stellar Object (QSO) samples. We constrain the HOD of each sample and test possible HOD extensions by fitting the redshift-space galaxy 2-point correlation functions in 0.15 < r < 32 h−1 Mpc in a set of fiducial redshift bins. We use AbacusSummit cubic boxes at Planck 2018 cosmology as model templates and forward model galaxy clustering with the AbacusHOD package. We achieve good fits with a standard HOD model with velocity bias, and we find no evidence for galaxy assembly bias or satellite profile modulation at the current level of statistical uncertainty. For LRGs in 0.4 < z < 0.6, we infer a satellite fraction of $f_\mathrm{sat} = 11\pm 1~{y{\ \mathrm{per\,cent}}}$, a mean halo mass of $\log _{10}\overline{M}_h/M_\odot =13.40^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$, and a linear bias of $b_\mathrm{lin} = 1.93_{-0.04}^{+0.06}$. For LRGs in 0.6 < z < 0.8, we find $f_\mathrm{sat}=14\pm 1~{{\ \mathrm{per\,cent}}}$, $\log _{10}\overline{M}_h/M_\odot =13.24^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$, and $b_\mathrm{lin}=2.08_{-0.03}^{+0.03}$. For QSOs, we infer $f_\mathrm{sat}=3^{+8}_{-2}\mathrm{per\,cent}$, $\log _{10}\overline{M}_h/M_\odot = 12.65^{+0.09}_{-0.04}$, and $b_\mathrm{lin} = 2.63_{-0.26}^{+0.37}$ in redshift range 0.8 < z < 2.1. Using these fits, we generate a large suite of high fidelity galaxy mocks, forming the basis of systematic tests for DESI Y1 cosmological analyses. We also study the redshift-evolution of the DESI LRG sample from z = 0.4 up to z = 1.1, revealling significant and interesting trends in mean halo mass, linear bias, and satellite fraction.

    more » « less

    Accurate quasar classifications and redshift measurements are increasingly important to precision cosmology experiments. Broad absorption line (BAL) features are present in 15–20 per cent of all quasars, and these features can introduce systematic redshift errors, and in extreme cases produce misclassifications. We quantitatively investigate the impact of BAL features on quasar classifications and redshift measurements with synthetic spectra that were designed to match observations by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Over the course of 5 yr, DESI aims to measure spectra for 40 million galaxies and quasars, including nearly three million quasars. Our synthetic quasar spectra match the signal-to-noise ratio and redshift distributions of the first year of DESI observations, and include the same synthetic quasar spectra both with and without BAL features. We demonstrate that masking the locations of the BAL features decreases the redshift errors by about 1 per cent and reduces the number of catastrophic redshift errors by about 80 per cent. We conclude that identifying and masking BAL troughs should be a standard part of the redshift determination step for DESI and other large-scale spectroscopic surveys of quasars.

    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    We explore the galaxy-halo connection information that is available in low-redshift samples from the early data release of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). We model the halo occupation distribution (HOD) fromz= 0.1 to 0.3 using Survey Validation 3 (SV3; a.k.a., the One-Percent Survey) data of the DESI Bright Galaxy Survey. In addition to more commonly used metrics, we incorporate counts-in-cylinders (CiC) measurements, which drastically tighten HOD constraints. Our analysis is aided by the Python package,galtab, which enables the rapid, precise prediction of CiC for any HOD model available inhalotools. This methodology allows our Markov chains to converge with much fewer trial points, and enables even more drastic speedups due to its GPU portability. Our HOD fits constrain characteristic halo masses tightly and provide statistical evidence for assembly bias, especially at lower luminosity thresholds: the HOD of central galaxies inz∼ 0.15 samples with limiting absolute magnitudeMr< −20.0 andMr< −20.5 samples is positively correlated with halo concentration with a significance of 99.9% and 99.5%, respectively. Our models also favor positive central assembly bias for the brighterMr< −21.0 sample atz∼ 0.25 (94.8% significance), but there is no significant evidence for assembly bias with the same luminosity threshold atz∼ 0.15. We provide our constraints for each threshold sample’s characteristic halo masses, assembly bias, and other HOD parameters. These constraints are expected to be significantly tightened with future DESI data, which will span an area 100 times larger than that of SV3.

    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    The Makani galaxy hosts the poster child of a galactic wind on scales of the circumgalactic medium. It consists of a two-episode wind in which the slow, outer wind originated 400 Myr ago (Episode I;RI= 20 − 50 kpc) and the fast, inner wind is 7 Myr old (Episode II;RII= 0 − 20 kpc). While this wind contains ionized, neutral, and molecular gas, the physical state and mass of the most extended phase—the warm, ionized gas—are unknown. Here we present Keck optical spectra of the Makani outflow. These allow us to detect hydrogen lines out tor= 30–40 kpc and thus constrain the mass, momentum, and energy in the wind. Many collisionally excited lines are detected throughout the wind, and their line ratios are consistent with 200–400 km s−1shocks that power the ionized gas, withvshock=σwind. Combining shock models, density-sensitive line ratios, and mass and velocity measurements, we estimate that the ionized mass and outflow rate in the Episode II wind could be as high as those of the molecular gas:MIIHIIMIIH2=(12)×109ManddM/dtIIHIIdM/dtIIH2=170250Myr−1. The outer wind has slowed, so thatdM/dtIHII10Myr−1, but it contains more ionized gas,MIHII=5×109M. The momentum and energy in the recent Episode II wind imply a momentum-driven flow (p“boost” ∼7) driven by the hot ejecta and radiation pressure from the Eddington-limited, compact starburst. Much of the energy and momentum in the older Episode I wind may reside in a hotter phase, or lie further into the circumgalactic medium.

    more » « less
  8. Abstract

    We investigate galactic winds in the HizEA galaxies, a collection of 46 late-stage galaxy mergers atz= 0.4–0.8, with stellar masses oflog(M*/M)=10.411.5, star formation rates (SFRs) of 20–500Myr−1, and ultra-compact (a few 100 pc) central star-forming regions. We measure their gas kinematics using the Mgiiλλ2796,2803 absorption lines in optical spectra from MMT, Magellan, and Keck. We find evidence of outflows in 90% of targets, with maximum outflow velocities of 550–3200 km s−1. We combine these data with ten samples from the literature to construct scaling relations for outflow velocity versus SFR, star formation surface density (ΣSFR),M*, and SFR/M*. The HizEA galaxies extend the dynamic range of the scaling relations by a factor of ∼2–4 in outflow velocity and an order of magnitude in SFR and ΣSFR. The ensemble scaling relations exhibit strong correlations between outflow velocity, SFR, SFR/R, and ΣSFR, and weaker correlations withM*and SFR/M*. The HizEA galaxies are mild outliers on the SFR andM*scaling relations, but they connect smoothly with more typical star-forming galaxies on plots of outflow velocity versus SFR/Rand ΣSFR. These results provide further evidence that the HizEA galaxies’ exceptional outflow velocities are a consequence of their extreme star formation conditions rather than hidden black hole activity, and they strengthen previous claims that ΣSFRis one of the most important properties governing the velocities of galactic winds.

    more » « less
  9. Abstract

    We present results on the properties of extreme gas outflows in massive (M*∼ 1011M), compact, starburst (star formation rate, SFR∼ 200Myr−1) galaxies atz= 0.4–0.7 with very high star formation surface densities (ΣSFR∼ 2000Myr−1kpc−2). Using optical Keck/HIRES spectroscopy of 14 HizEA starburst galaxies, we identify outflows with maximum velocities of 820–2860 km s−1. High-resolution spectroscopy allows us to measure precise column densities and covering fractions as a function of outflow velocity and characterize the kinematics and structure of the cool gas outflow phase (T∼ 104K). We find substantial variation in the absorption profiles, which likely reflects the complex morphology of inhomogeneously distributed, clumpy gas and the intricacy of the turbulent mixing layers between the cold and hot outflow phases. There is not a straightforward correlation between the bursts in the galaxies’ star formation histories and their wind absorption line profiles, as might naively be expected for starburst-driven winds. The lack of strong Mgiiabsorption at the systemic velocity is likely an orientation effect, where the observations are down the axis of a blowout. We infer high mass outflow rates of ∼50–2200Myr−1, assuming a fiducial outflow size of 5 kpc, and mass loading factors ofη∼ 5 for most of the sample. While these values have high uncertainties, they suggest that starburst galaxies are capable of ejecting very large amounts of cool gas that will substantially impact their future evolution.

    more » « less

    We measure the tidal alignment of the major axes of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Legacy Imaging Survey and use it to infer the artificial redshift-space distortion signature that will arise from an orientation-dependent, surface-brightness selection in the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Using photometric redshifts to downweight the shape–density correlations due to weak lensing, we measure the intrinsic tidal alignment of LRGs. Separately, we estimate the net polarization of LRG orientations from DESI’s fibre-magnitude target selection to be of order 10−2 along the line of sight. Using these measurements and a linear tidal model, we forecast a 0.5 per cent fractional decrease on the quadrupole of the two-point correlation function for projected separations of 40–80 h−1 Mpc. We also use a halo catalogue from the Abacussummit cosmological simulation suite to reproduce this false quadrupole.

    more » « less