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Creators/Authors contains: "Mueller, R."

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  1. Synopsis

    Genome size varies ∼100,000-fold across eukaryotes and has long been hypothesized to be influenced by metamorphosis in animals. Transposable element accumulation has been identified as a major driver of increase, but the nature of constraints limiting the size of genomes has remained unclear, even as traits such as cell size and rate of development co-vary strongly with genome size. Salamanders, which possess diverse metamorphic and non-metamorphic life histories, join the lungfish in having the largest vertebrate genomes—3 to 40 times that of humans—as well as the largest range of variation in genome size. We tested 13 biologically-inspired hypotheses exploring how the form of metamorphosis imposes varying constraints on genome expansion in a broadly representative phylogeny containing 118 species of salamanders. We show that metamorphosis during which animals undergo the most extensive and synchronous remodeling imposes the most severe constraint against genome expansion, with the severity of constraint decreasing with reduced extent and synchronicity of remodeling. More generally, our work demonstrates the potential for broader interpretation of phylogenetic comparative analysis in exploring the balance of multiple evolutionary pressures shaping phenotypic evolution.

  2. We develop an effective computer model to simulate sensing environments that consist of natural trees. The simulated environments are random and contain full geometry of the tree foliage. While this simulated model can be used as a general platform for studying the sensing mechanism of different flying species, our ultimate goal is to build bat-inspired Quad-rotor UAVs—UAVs that can recreate bat’s flying behavior (e.g., obstacle avoidance, path planning) in dense vegetation. To this end, we also introduce an foliage echo simulator that can produce simulated echoes by mimicking bat’s biosonar. In our current model, a few realistic model choices or assumptions are made. First, in order to create natural looking trees, the branching structures of trees are modeled by L-systems, whereas the detailed geometry of branches, subbranches and leaves is created by randomizing a reference tree in a CAD object file. Additionally, the foliage echo simulator is simplified so that no shading effect is considered. We demonstrate our developed model by simulating real-world scenarios with multiple trees and compute the corresponding impulse responses along a Quad-rotor trajectory.
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  7. A bstract A search is presented for a heavy W′ boson resonance decaying to a B or T vector-like quark and a t or a b quark, respectively. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb − 1 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Both decay channels result in a signature with a t quark, a Higgs or Z boson, and a b quark, each produced with a significant Lorentz boost. The all-hadronic decays of the Higgs or Z boson and of the t quark are selected using jet substructure techniques to reduce standard model backgrounds, resulting in a distinct three-jet W′ boson decay signature. No significant deviation in data with respect to the standard model background prediction is observed. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on the product of the W′ boson cross section and the final state branching fraction. A W′ boson with a mass below 3.1 TeV is excluded, given the benchmark model assumption of democratic branching fractions. In addition, limits are set based on generalizations of these assumptions. These are the most sensitive limits to datemore »for this final state.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023