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  1. Abstract V471 Tau is a post-common-envelope binary consisting of an eclipsing DA white dwarf and a K-type main-sequence star in the Hyades star cluster. We analyzed publicly available photometry and spectroscopy of V471 Tau to revise the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. We used archival K2 photometry, archival Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy, and published radial-velocity measurements of the K-type star. Employing Gaussian processes to fit for rotational modulation of the system flux by the main-sequence star, we recovered the transits of the white dwarf in front of the main-sequence star for the first time. The transits are shallower than would be expected from purely geometric occultations owing to gravitational microlensing during transit, which places an additional constraint on the white-dwarf mass. Our revised mass and radius for the main-sequence star is consistent with single-star evolutionary models given the age and metallicity of the Hyades. However, as noted previously in the literature, the white dwarf is too massive and too hot to be the result of single-star evolution given the age of the Hyades, and may be the product of a merger scenario. We independently estimate the conditions of the system at the time of common envelope that wouldmore »result in the measured orbital parameters today.« less
  2. Abstract We describe the Perkins INfrared Exosatellite Survey (PINES), a near-infrared photometric search for short-period transiting planets and moons around a sample of 393 spectroscopically confirmed L- and T-type dwarfs. PINES is performed with Boston University’s 1.8 m Perkins Telescope Observatory, located on Anderson Mesa, Arizona. We discuss the observational strategy of the survey, which was designed to optimize the number of expected transit detections, and describe custom automated observing procedures for performing PINES observations. We detail the steps of the PINES Analysis Toolkit ( PAT ), software that is used to create light curves from PINES images. We assess the impact of second-order extinction due to changing precipitable water vapor on our observations and find that the magnitude of this effect is minimized in Mauna Kea Observatories J band. We demonstrate the validity of PAT through the recovery of a transit of WASP-2 b and known variable brown dwarfs, and use it to identify a new variable L/T transition object: the T2 dwarf WISE J045746.08-020719.2. We report on the measured photometric precision of the survey and use it to estimate our transit-detection sensitivity. We find that for our median brightness targets, assuming contributions from white noise only, we aremore »sensitive to the detection of 2.5 R ⊕ planets and larger. PINES will test whether the increase in sub-Neptune-sized planet occurrence with decreasing host mass continues into the L- and T-dwarf regime.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2023