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  1. Efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetically coupled materials that are integration-friendly and have strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is of great interest for low-power, fast, dense magnetic storage and computing. Here, we report a distinct, giant bulk damping-like spin–orbit torque in strong-PMA ferrimagnetic Fe 100− x Tb x single layers that are integration-friendly (composition-uniform, amorphous, and sputter-deposited). For sufficiently thick layers, this bulk torque is constant in the efficiency per unit layer thickness, [Formula: see text]/ t, with a record-high value of 0.036 ± 0.008 nm −1 , and the damping-like torque efficiency [Formula: see text] achieves very large values for thick layers, up tomore »300% for 90 nm layers. This giant bulk torque by itself switches tens of nm thick Fe 100− x Tb x layers that have very strong PMA and high coercivity at current densities as low as a few MA/cm 2 . Surprisingly, for a given layer thickness, [Formula: see text] shows strong composition dependence and becomes negative for composition where the total angular momentum is oriented parallel to the magnetization rather than antiparallel. Our findings of giant bulk spin torque efficiency and intriguing torque-compensation correlation will stimulate study of such unique spin–orbit phenomena in a variety of ferrimagnetic hosts. This work paves a promising avenue for developing ultralow-power, fast, dense ferrimagnetic storage and computing devices.« less
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  8. Alkaline fuel cells enable the use of earth-abundant elements to replace Pt but are hindered by the sluggish kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in alkaline media. Precious metal–free HOR electrocatalysts need to overcome two major challenges: their low intrinsic activity from too strong a hydrogen-binding energy and poor durability due to rapid passivation from metal oxide formation. Here, we designed a Ni-based electrocatalyst with a 2-nm nitrogen-doped carbon shell (Ni@CN x ) that serves as a protection layer and significantly enhances HOR kinetics. A Ni@CN x anode, paired with a Co−Mn spinel cathode, exhibited a record peak powermore »density of over 200 mW/cm 2 in a completely precious metal–free alkaline membrane fuel cell. Ni@CN x exhibited superior durability when compared to a Ni nanoparticle catalyst due to the enhanced oxidation resistance provided by the CN x layer. Density functional theory calculations suggest that graphitic carbon layers on the surface of the Ni nanoparticles lower the H binding energy to Ni, bringing it closer to the previously predicted value for optimal HOR activity, and single Ni atoms anchored to pyridinic or pyrrolic N defects of graphene can serve as the HOR active sites. The strategy described here marks a milestone in electrocatalyst design for low-cost hydrogen fuel cells and other energy technologies with completely precious metal–free electrocatalysts.« less
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  9. Precision and accuracy of quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) methods such as ptychography, and the mapping of electric, magnetic, and strain fields depend on the dose. Reasonable acquisition time requires high beam current and the ability to quantitatively detect both large and minute changes in signal. A new hybrid pixel array detector (PAD), the second-generation Electron Microscope Pixel Array Detector (EMPAD-G2), addresses this challenge by advancing the technology of a previous generation PAD, the EMPAD. The EMPAD-G2 images continuously at a frame-rates up to 10 kHz with a dynamic range that spans from low-noise detection of single electrons tomore »electron beam currents exceeding 180 pA per pixel, even at electron energies of 300 keV. The EMPAD-G2 enables rapid collection of high-quality STEM data that simultaneously contain full diffraction information from unsaturated bright-field disks to usable Kikuchi bands and higher-order Laue zones. Test results from 80 to 300 keV are presented, as are first experimental results demonstrating ptychographic reconstructions, strain and polarization maps. We introduce a new information metric, the maximum usable imaging speed (MUIS), to identify when a detector becomes electron-starved, saturated or its pixel count is mismatched with the beam current.« less
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