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  1. ABSTRACT

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-5 observations of HBC 494, as well as calculations of the kinematic and dynamic variables which represent the object’s wide-angle bipolar outflows. HBC 494 is a binary FU Orionis type object located in the Orion A molecular cloud. We take advantage of combining the ALMA main array, Atacama Compact Array (ACA), and Total Power (TP) array in order to map HBC 494’s outflows and thus, estimate their kinematic parameters with higher accuracy in comparison to prior publications. We use 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and SO observations to describe the object’s outflows, envelope, and disc, as well as estimate the mass, momentum, and kinetic energy of the outflows. After correcting for optical opacity near systemic velocities, we estimate a mass of 3.0 × 10−2 M⊙ for the southern outflow and 2.8 × 10−2 M⊙ for northern outflow. We report the first detection of a secondary outflow cavity located approximately 15 arcsec north of the central binary system, which could be a remnant of a previous large-scale accretion outburst. Furthermore, we find CO spatial features in HBC 494’s outflows corresponding to position angles of ∼35° and ∼145°. This suggests that HBC 494’s outflows are most likely a composite of overlapping outflows from two different sources, i.e. HBC 494a and HBC 494b, the two objects in the binary system.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    The internal velocity structure within dense gaseous cores plays a crucial role in providing the initial conditions for star formation in molecular clouds. However, the kinematic properties of dense gas at core scales (∼0.01−0.1 pc) has not been extensively characterized because of instrument limitations until the unique capabilities of GBT-Argus became available. The ongoing GBT-Argus Large Program, Dynamics in Star-forming Cores (DiSCo) thus aims to investigate the origin and distribution of angular momentum of star-forming cores. DiSCo will survey all starless cores and Class 0 protostellar cores in the Perseus molecular complex down to ∼0.01 pc scales with <0.05 km s−1 velocity resolution using the dense gas tracer N2H+. Here, we present the first data sets from DiSCo towards the B1 and NGC 1333 regions in Perseus. Our results suggest that a dense core’s internal velocity structure has little correlation with other core-scale properties, indicating these gas motions may be originated externally from cloud-scale turbulence. These first data sets also reaffirm the ability of GBT-Argus for studying dense core velocity structure and provided an empirical basis for future studies that address the angular momentum problem with a statistically broad sample.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT In typical environments of star-forming clouds, converging supersonic turbulence generates shock-compressed regions, and can create strongly magnetized sheet-like layers. Numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that within these post-shock layers, dense filaments and embedded self-gravitating cores form via gathering material along the magnetic field lines. As a result of the preferred-direction mass collection, a velocity gradient perpendicular to the filament major axis is a common feature seen in simulations. We show that this prediction is in good agreement with recent observations from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), from which we identified several filaments with prominent velocity gradients perpendicular to their major axes. Highlighting a filament from the north-west part of Serpens South, we provide both qualitative and quantitative comparisons between simulation results and observational data. In particular, we show that the dimensionless ratio Cv ≡ Δvh2/(GM/L), where Δvh is half of the observed perpendicular velocity difference across a filament, and M/L is the filament’s mass per unit length, can distinguish between filaments formed purely due to turbulent compression and those formed due to gravity-induced accretion. We conclude that the perpendicular velocity gradient observed in the Serpens South north-west filament can be caused by gravity-induced anisotropic accretion of material from a flattened layer. Using synthetic observations of our simulated filaments, we also propose that a density-selection effect may explain observed subfilaments (one filament breaking into two components in velocity space) as reported in recent observations. 
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  5. ABSTRACT

    We present the first results of high-spectral resolution (0.023 km s−1) N2H+ observations of dense gas dynamics at core scales (∼0.01 pc) using the recently commissioned Argus instrument on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). While the fitted linear velocity gradients across the cores measured in our targets nicely agree with the well-known power-law correlation between the specific angular momentum and core size, it is unclear if the observed gradients represent core-scale rotation. In addition, our Argus data reveal detailed and intriguing gas structures in position–velocity (PV) space for all five targets studied in this project, which could suggest that the velocity gradients previously observed in many dense cores actually originate from large-scale turbulence or convergent flow compression instead of rigid-body rotation. We also note that there are targets in this study with their star-forming discs nearly perpendicular to the local velocity gradients, which, assuming the velocity gradient represents the direction of rotation, is opposite to what is described by the classical theory of star formation. This provides important insight on the transport of angular momentum within star-forming cores, which is a critical topic on studying protostellar disc formation.

     
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