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  1. ABSTRACT

    We present a grid of stellar models at supersolar metallicity (Z = 0.020) extending the previous grids of Geneva models at solar and sub-solar metallicities. A metallicity of Z = 0.020 was chosen to match that of the inner Galactic disc. A modest increase of 43 per cent (= 0.02/0.014) in metallicity compared to solar models means that the models evolve similarly to solar models but with slightly larger mass-loss. Mass-loss limits the final total masses of the supersolar models to 35 M⊙ even for stars with initial masses much larger than 100 M⊙. Mass-loss is strong enough in stars above 20 M⊙ for rotating stars (25 M⊙ for non-rotating stars) to remove the entire hydrogen-rich envelope. Our models thus predict SNII below 20 M⊙ for rotating stars (25 M⊙ for non-rotating stars) and SNIb (possibly SNIc) above that. We computed both isochrones and synthetic clusters to compare our supersolar models to the Westerlund 1 (Wd1) massive young cluster. A synthetic cluster combining rotating and non-rotating models with an age spread between log10(age/yr) = 6.7 and 7.0 is able to reproduce qualitatively the observed populations of WR, RSG, and YSG stars in Wd1, in particular their simultaneous presence at $\log _{10}(L/\mathit {\mathrm{ L}}_{\odot })$ = 5–5.5. The quantitative agreement is imperfect and wemore »discuss the likely causes: synthetic cluster parameters, binary interactions, mass-loss and their related uncertainties. In particular, mass-loss in the cool part of the HRD plays a key role.

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  2. Context. Grids of stellar models, computed with the same physical ingredients, allow one to study the impact of a given physics on a broad range of initial conditions and they are a key ingredient for modeling the evolution of galaxies. Aims. We present here a grid of single star models for masses between 0.8 and 120 M ⊙ , with and without rotation for a mass fraction of heavy element Z  = 0.006, representative of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Methods. We used the GENeva stellar Evolution Code. The evolution was computed until the end of the central carbon-burning phase, the early asymptotic giant branch phase, or the core helium-flash for massive, intermediate, and low mass stars, respectively. Results. The outputs of the present stellar models are well framed by the outputs of the two grids obtained by our group for metallicities above and below the one considered here. The models of the present work provide a good fit to the nitrogen surface enrichments observed during the main sequence for stars in the LMC with initial masses around 15 M ⊙ . They also reproduce the slope of the luminosity function of red supergiants of the LMC well, which is amore »feature that is sensitive to the time-averaged mass loss rate over the red supergiant phase. The most massive black hole that can be formed from the present models at Z  = 0.006 is around 55 M ⊙ . No model in the range of mass considered will enter into the pair-instability supernova regime, while the minimal mass to enter the region of pair pulsation instability is around 60 M ⊙ for the rotating models and 85 M ⊙ for the nonrotating ones. Conclusions. The present models are of particular interest for comparisons with observations in the LMC and also in the outer regions of the Milky Way. We provide public access to numerical tables that can be used for computing interpolated tracks and for population synthesis studies.« less