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  1. Our group is developing a cyber-physical walking system (CPWS) for people paralyzed by spinal cord injuries (SCI). The current CPWS consists of a functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) system and a powered lower-limb exoskeleton for walking with leg movements in the sagittal plane. We are developing neural control systems that learn to assist the user of this CPWS to walk with stability. In a previous publication (Liu et al., Biomimetics, 2019, 4, 28), we showed a neural controller that stabilized a simulated biped in the sagittal plane. We are considering adding degrees of freedom to the CPWS to allow more naturalmore »walking movements and improved stability. Thus, in this paper, we present a new neural network enhanced control system that stabilizes a three-dimensional simulated biped model of a human wearing an exoskeleton. Results show that it stabilizes human/exoskeleton models and is robust to impact disturbances. The simulated biped walks at a steady pace in a range of typical human ambulatory speeds from 0.7 to 1.3 m/s, follows waypoints at a precision of 0.3 m, remains stable, and continues walking forward despite impact disturbances and adapts its speed to compensate for persistent external disturbances. Furthermore, the neural network controller stabilizes human models of different statures from 1.4 to 2.2 m tall without any changes to the control parameters. Please see videos at the following link: 3D biped walking control .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 6, 2022
  2. Estimating center of mass (COM) through sensor measurements is done to maintain walking and standing stability with exoskeletons. The authors present a method for estimating COM kinematics through an artificial neural network, which was trained by minimizing the mean squared error between COM displacements measured by a gold-standard motion capture system and recorded acceleration signals from body-mounted accelerometers. A total of 5 able-bodied participants were destabilized during standing through: (1) unexpected perturbations caused by 4 linear actuators pulling on the waist and (2) volitionally moving weighted jars on a shelf. Each movement type was averaged across all participants. The algorithm’s performance wasmore »quantified by the root mean square error and coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) calculated from both the entire trial and during each perturbation type. Throughout the trials and movement types, the average coefficient of determination was 0.83, with 89% of the movements with R 2  > .70, while the average root mean square error ranged between 7.3% and 22.0%, corresponding to 0.5- and 0.94-cm error in both the coronal and sagittal planes. COM can be estimated in real time for balance control of exoskeletons for individuals with a spinal cord injury, and the procedure can be generalized for other gait studies.« less
  3. A control system for simulated two-dimensional bipedal walking was developed. The biped model was built based on anthropometric data. At the core of the control is a Deep Deterministic Policy Gradients (DDPG) neural network that is trained in GAZEBO, a physics simulator, to predict the ideal foot location to maintain stable walking under external impulse load. Additional controllers for hip joint movement during stance phase, and ankle joint torque during toeoff, help to stabilize the robot during walking. The simulated robot can walk at a steady pace of approximately 1m/s, and during locomotion it can maintain stability with a 30N-smore »impulse applied at the torso. This work implement DDPG algorithm to solve biped walking control problem. The complexity of DDPG network is decreased through carefully selected state variables and distributed control system.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  7. Abstract The coherent photoproduction of $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ and $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ mesons was measured in ultra-peripheral Pb–Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}~=~5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV  with the ALICE detector. Charmonia are detected in the central rapidity region for events where the hadronic interactions are strongly suppressed. The $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ is reconstructed using the dilepton ( $$l^{+} l^{-}$$ l + l - ) and proton–antiproton decay channels, while for the $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′   the dilepton and the $$l^{+} l^{-} \pi ^{+} \pi ^{-}$$ l + l - πmore »+ π - decay channels are studied. The analysis is based on an event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 233 $$\mu {\mathrm{b}}^{-1}$$ μ b - 1 . The results are compared with theoretical models for coherent $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ and $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ photoproduction. The coherent cross section is found to be in a good agreement with models incorporating moderate nuclear gluon shadowing of about 0.64 at a Bjorken- x of around $$6\times 10^{-4}$$ 6 × 10 - 4 , such as the EPS09 parametrization, however none of the models is able to fully describe the rapidity dependence of the coherent $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ cross section including ALICE measurements at forward rapidity. The ratio of $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ to $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ coherent photoproduction cross sections was also measured and found to be consistent with the one for photoproduction off protons.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  9. Abstract The production of $$\phi $$ ϕ mesons has been studied in pp collisions at LHC energies with the ALICE detector via the dimuon decay channel in the rapidity region $$2.5< y < 4$$ 2.5 < y < 4 . Measurements of the differential cross section $$\mathrm{d}^2\sigma /\mathrm{d}y \mathrm{d}p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ d 2 σ / d y d p T are presented as a function of the transverse momentum ( $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T ) at the center-of-mass energies $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$ s = 5.02 , 8 and 13 TeV and compared with the ALICE results at midrapidity. The differential cross sections at $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$more »s = 5.02 and 13 TeV are also studied in several rapidity intervals as a function of $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T , and as a function of rapidity in three $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T intervals. A hardening of the $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T -differential cross section with the collision energy is observed, while, for a given energy, $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T spectra soften with increasing rapidity and, conversely, rapidity distributions get slightly narrower at increasing $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T . The new results, complementing the published measurements at $$\sqrt{s}=2.76$$ s = 2.76 and 7 TeV, allow one to establish the energy dependence of $$\phi $$ ϕ meson production and to compare the measured cross sections with phenomenological models. None of the considered models manages to describe the evolution of the cross section with $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T and rapidity at all the energies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022